Sex workers and sexual assault bibliography

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Confronting commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States
ClaytonE, Krugman R and Simon P
Washington, DC : The National Academies Press, 2013.

"Every day in the United States, children and adolescents are victims of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking. Despite the serious and long-term consequences for victims as well as their families, communities, and society, efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to these crimes are largely under supported, inefficient, uncoordinated, and unevaluated. [This report] examines commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents of the United States under age 18. According to this report, efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to these crimes require better collaborative approaches that build upon the capabilities of people and entities from a range of sectors. In addition, such efforts need to confront demand and the individuals who commit and benefit from these crimes."

Trading lives: modern day human trafficking : Inquiry of the Human Rights Sub-Committee
Australia. Parliament. Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade. Human Rights Sub-Committee
Canberra : Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, 2013.

People trafficking and slavery are some of the fastest growing criminal activities in the world. It includes forced labour, servitude, forced prostitution or sexual servitude, forced marriage, and debt bondage. This inquiry investigates the extent of slavery and people trafficking in Australia, as well as current efforts and international best practice in addressing these crimes and supporting and protecting victims. This report presents the findings and recommendations of the inquiry.

Working with sexual assault in the sex industry (Project Respect)
Wall L
Melbourne, Vic : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2013.

Project Respect is a non-government organisation that supports women in the sex industry, including women in brothels, street prostitution, escort work, pornography, and those who have been trafficked into Australia for the purposes of prostitution. In this interview, the Executive Director of Project Respect, Kelly Hinton, discusses the issue of sexual assault against sex workers, attitudes towards reporting assault, and the work of Project Respect in providing support and bridging the gap between women and mainstream services.

People trafficking in Australia
Joudo J and Renshaw L
Canberra, ACT : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2012.

"Few of the cases identified in Australia to date fit the traditional stereotypes of the forced movement and confinement of trafficked persons by traffickers. This paper summarises what is currently known about the nature of people trafficking in Australia. It includes an examination of how the reality of people trafficking compares with community perceptions of the crime. The authors note the need to establish reliable data-driven monitoring systems to better assess the nature and extent of trafficking into Australia, and the need to educate the Australian community to improve their understanding, given the important role they play in identifying and supporting trafficking victims."--Publisher abstract.

Sexual offences against young people (PDF)
Tasmania. Law Reform Institute
Hobart, Tas. : Tasmania Law Reform Institute, 2012.

This review was commissioned to examine the legal defence of mistake as to age, regarding sexual offences against children in Tasmania. The review follows on from a controversial case where a 12-year-old girl was prostituted by her mother and her mother's friend, with only one of the girl's clients prosecuted. The review considers the current law, areas needing reform, and options for reforms, regarding sexual intercourse with a young person, aggravated sexual assault and indecent assault, indecent act with young person, procurement, maintaining a sexual relationship with a young person, child pornography, and child prostitution offences. This report presents the findings and recommendations of the review.

Organised crime and trafficking in persons
David F
Canberra, ACT : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2012.

Trafficking in person occurs in a range of industries and sectors and affects men, women and children. This paper provides an overview of existing research on the trafficking of persons in Australia and internationally.

The Global Sex Trade: Economics, Policy and the State
Australia : Pluto Press, August 2012.

Trafficking in women for commercial sex is the world's fastest growing transnational criminal phenomenon. The Global Sex Trade looks at the reality behind this shocking fact, showing how this situation has come about and how it can be changed. In a distinctive and original analysis Karie A. Gubbins shows the connections between the legalised sex industry and the illegal world of sex trafficking.

Health and community services for trafficked women : an exploratory study of policy and practice.
Schofield T, Hepworth J, Jones M and Schofield E
Australian Journal of Social Issues v. 46 no. 4 2011: 391-410

The trafficking of women has attracted considerable international and national policy attention, particularly since the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (2000), of which the Australian Government has been a signatory since 2005. The provision of health and community services for trafficked women is a central feature of this Protocol, but in Australia service provision is made difficult by how trafficked women are understood and treated in policy and legal terms. This study aimed to explore the provision of health and community services for trafficked women in the Greater Sydney region through a series of interviews with government and non-government organisations. The findings reveal that services have been inaccessible as a result of sparse, uncoordinated, and poorly funded provision. The major obstacle to adequate and appropriate service provision has been a national policy approach focusing on 'border protection' and criminalisation rather than on trafficked women and their human rights. We conclude that further policy development needs to focus on the practical implications of how such rights can be translated into the delivery of health and community services that trafficked women can access and be supported by more effectively.

The trafficking of children in the Asia-Pacific
Joudo J
Canberra : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2011.

Children are vulnerable to many forms of abuse and exploitation and have long been victims of trafficking for the purpose of both sexual and labour exploitation. There has been some analysis of trafficking of children in Asia, where trafficking persists despite significant prevention efforts, however, comparatively little is known about trafficking in the Pacific. Given that over one-third of the population in the Pacific region is under 15 years of age, anecdotal reports of circumstances which may amount to trafficking raise concerns for the large youth population in the Pacific Islands. Further, although there have been no prosecutions for child trafficking in Australia, the risk experienced by children within the Asia-Pacific region is relevant to responses in Australia and in supporting the development of improved inter-country responses across the region. This paper examines current definitions of child trafficking, the forms that it is known to take in Asia and the Pacific, the factors which increase vulnerability to trafficking and the mechanisms for the protection of children from this crime. (Publisher abstract)

Inquiry into people trafficking for sex work: government response (PDF)
Victoria
Melbourne : Parliament of Victoria, 2011

On 13 August 2009, the Parliament of Victoria called for an Inquiry into people trafficking for sex work, to investigate the scope of sex trafficking in Victoria and local and international measures to combat the problem. The Inquiry reported its findings on 8 June 2010, and presented 30 recommendations for government action on coordination and service delivery, law and criminal justice, education and training, victim support, research, and Commonwealth responsibilities. This Government Response reviews each of the recommendations and explains how the government will support or work towards those targets.

Violence against women and sport: a literature review (PDF)
Palmer C
London : End Violence Against Women, 2011

"A review of available research on violence against women committed by male athletes, violence against women in relation to major sporting events, and victimisation of female athletes, with some reference to awareness and prevention campaigns."

Inquiry into people trafficking for sex work: final report (PDF)
Victoria. Parliament. Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee
Melbourne : Parliament of Victoria, 2010.

The Inquiry into people trafficking for sex work was commissioned to investigate the scope of sex trafficking in Victoria and local and international measures to combat the problem. It examined: the extent and nature of trafficking people for the purposes of sex work into Victoria from overseas; the inter-relationship (if any) between the unlicensed and licensed prostitution sectors in Victoria, and trafficking for the purposes of sex work; the current and proposed intergovernmental and international strategies and initiatives in relation to dealing with trafficking for the purposes of sex work; and the need for policy and legislative reform to combat trafficking for the purposes of sex work, in Victoria. This report presents the findings of the Inquiry, together with its recommendations for policy and action.

Sex, drugs and rock & roll: psychological, legal and cultural examination of sex and sexuality
Gavin H and Bent J
Oxford, UK : Inter-Disciplinary Press, 2010.

This book explores psychological, legal and cultural issues in sex and sexuality. The chapters reflect proceedings of the 2nd Global Conference 'Good Sex, Bad Sex - Sex Law, Crime, and Ethics', held in Prague in May 2010, and are written by Australian and international authors. Sections include: defining sex and sex crime; ethics and principles in sexual conduct; sex, crime and the law; sex law and its agencies; regulating desire; and, what is good sex, what is bad sex?

Protecting children from sexual violence : a comprehensive approach
Council of Europe
Strasbourg Cedex : Council of Europe Publishing, 2010.

"[This book] is divided into five parts, presenting a European overview and covering the existing legal frameworks; abuse prevention and reporting; rehabilitation and social reintegration of victims; sexual violence on the Internet; and public and private partnerships against abuse. It also sheds light on the little-known problem of children who are sexually abusing other children. In addition to providing thorough information on the many facets of this complex subject, this publication also highlights new concepts, facts and recommendations. Foremost is the significant lack of data on the prevalence and nature of sexual violence in Europe, underscoring the need for co-ordinated pan-European research and information gathering, which are vital to effective policy making and programme design. It also sounds the alarm for urgent co-ordinated action in various fields to drastically improve child protection through awareness raising; targeted and specialised training, intervention and therapy programmes; sex education in schools; responsible family attitudes; and justice systems with tighter abuse laws and which take account of children's special needs as reliable witnesses."

Cross border trafficking in human beings: prevention and intervention strategies for reducing exploitation : protocol on human trafficking. (PDF)
Campbell Collaboration
Oslo, Norway : Campbell Collaboration, 2010

Sex trafficking : international context and response
Segrave M, Milivojevic S and Pickering S
Cullompton, UK : Willan Publishing, 2009.

This book examines international frameworks for addressing sex trafficking. It features case studies on anti-trafficking efforts in Australia, Serbia and Thailand, and interviews with experts including immigration authorities, police, lawyers, and activists. Chapters include: sex trafficking: mapping the terrain; finding victims: the search and 'rescue'; in pursuit of justice: the criminal investigation; support for victims: in the care of the state; realising justice: prosecution processes and outcomes; repatriation: returning women home; and forging new paths.

Training manual to fight trafficking in children for labour, sexual and other forms of exploitation.
International Labour Organization, UNICEF, Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking
ILO, UNICEF and the Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking, 2009.

The health of female sex workers from three industry sectors in Queensland, Australia.
Seib C, Fischer J and Najman J
Social science and medicine v. 68 no. 3 Feb 2009: 473-478

This paper looks at the self-reported mental health of sex workers in Queensland working in the three areas of licensed brothels, as private sole operators, and illegally. The data was collected from 247 female sex workers in the age range of 18-57, using cross-sectional convenience sampling. The study found there was little difference in the physical health of the respondents, but illegal sex workers were four times more likely to report negative mental health scores. The study suggests that the illegal, street based workers may show patterns of circumstances and health outcomes not seen in workers in licensed brothels and sole operators. Their poor mental health may be due in part to these workers' adverse experiences before entering the sex industry and may be reinforced by their experiences since working in the sex industry, experiences such as their exposure to greater risk e.g. assault.

Reversing the trend: child trafficking in East and South East Asia. (PDF)
UNICEF East Asia & Pacific
UNICEF East Asia & Pacific, 2009.

"This report is a regional assessment of UNICEF's efforts to address child trafficking, drawing on country assessments conducted in China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam in early 2008. It also highlights trends, gaps, lessons learned, promising and good practices across the region. Despite varying contexts and different experiences across these countries."

Their protection is in our hands: the state of global child trafficking for sexual purposes
ECPAT International, Body Shop International
Bangkok : ECPAT International ; West Sussex, UK : Body Shop International, 2009.

The Body Shop and ECPAT International have begun a global campaign to stop the sex trafficking of children and young people. This report provides background information on child sex trafficking, including what is known on prevalence, regional pathways, and risk factors for children. The report also examines the types of interventions and good practices that are necessary to prevent, protect, and assist children and proposes global goals and targets for securing a safer world for children.

Handbook on the optional protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (PDF)
UNICEF. Innocenti Research Centre.
Florence, Italy : UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, 2009.

"This handbook aims to promote understanding and effective implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (OPSC). It describes the genesis, scope and content of the Protocol, and provides examples of measures taken by States Parties to fulfil their obligations under this instrument. The handbook is addressed principally to public officials and others who work with and for children, and whose duties and activities can help to enhance the protection of children from exploitation, whether on the national or local level."

Trafficked : an interview with Kathleen Maltzahn.
Woodlock D
DVRC Quarterly no. 1 Autumn 2009: 12-16

The author's book 'Trafficked' tells the story of a human rights campaign that succeeded in changing government policy to protect women smuggled into Australia to work in the sex trade. It contains first person accounts, stories that inspired women's groups to make sure trafficked women could no longer be ignored. As many women in this sector are aware, there are numerous links between prostitution and domestic violence / sexual abuse. The author is founding director of Project Respect, an organization working to end violence against women in the sex industry. DVRC's Delanie Woodlock posed the following questions to her, to explore the links, and the myriad of issues covered by the publication, 'Traffick'.

The economic impact of violence against women in Tennessee: how the direct costs of Tennessee's most common violent crimes are weighing down our economy and tearing down a gender, with recommendations toward prevention. (PDF)
Arth W
Nasville, Tenn. : Tennessee Economic Council on Women, 2013.

"The purpose of this study is to provide state-level, dollar-value estimates describing the cost and impact of violent crimes committed against women in Tennessee, and to present related recommendations in order to inform policy and budgetary decisions at the state and local level."

Trafficking of women for sexual purposes
David F
Canberra, A.C.T. : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2008.

In 2007 the Australian Institute of Criminology was commissioned to undertake research concerning the trafficking of women for sexual purposes. This report examines the background to the Australian situation, and presents an overview of the criminal justice response, including, police and legal framework, law enforcement, immigration, people trafficking visa framework, prosecutions and victim support. The study discusses the complexity of detecting victims of trafficking, the problems involved in investigation and prosecution, and in providing victim support in the criminal justice process. The report concludes with the examination of the findings and future recommendations, which include the sharing of information and cooperation within the non-government sector, police education and witness protection.

Trafficked
Maltzahn K
Sydney, N.S.W. : UNSW Press, 2008.

In 2001, the death of Puongtong Simaplee at the Villawood Detention Centre raised Australian awareness of trafficking for prostitution. This book gives an account of women and girls trafficked to Australia and kept against their will for prostitution, and charts the campaign that followed the death of Puongtong Simaplee. It uses the real stories of a number of different women and their experiences in brothels, living underground and in court to outline the full extent of the issue and the web of criminals who trade in women. There are also recommendations for further reforms necessary to improve policing and offer women a viable way out of the sex industry..

Sex workers and sexual assault in Australia : prevalence, risk and safety
Quadara A
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2008.

This paper examines the nature and extent of sexual assault against sex workers in Australia within their work context. It reviews contemporary research on the prevalence of sexual assault, perpetrators of sexual assault, risk factors, legal contexts, occupational health and safety protocols, prevention strategies, public attitudes to sex work and sex workers, and inequality and discrimination. It examines the conditions that make sex workers vulnerable to sexual assault, the barriers to disclosure and accessing support services faced by sex workers, and strategies that may help to prevent sexual assault against sex workers.

Violence against women and girls: a compendium of monitoring and evaluation indicators
Bloom S
Chapel Hill, NC : MEASURE Evaluation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2008.

This compendium presents a set of monitoring and evaluation indicators for program managers, organisations, and policy makers who are working to address violence against women and girls at the individual, community, district/provincial, and national levels in developing countries. Indicators were developed to measure the following areas: Magnitude and characteristics of different forms of violence, including skewed sex rations, intimate partner violence, violence from someone other than an intimate partner, female genital cutting/mutilation and child marriage; Programs by sector, including health, education, justice/security, social welfare; Under-documented forms of violence and emerging issues, including humanitarian emergencies, trafficking in persons, femicide; and Preventing violence, such as through community mobilisation and working with men and boys).

Demanding sex : critical reflections on the regulation of prostitution
Munro V and Della Giusta M
Aldershot, England : Ashgate, 2008.

"By interrogating supply/demand from an inter- and multi-disciplinary perspective the chapters in this collection aim to broaden engagement beyond the routine analysis of the locus of violence in prostitution and the validity of the prostitute's consent. A focus on the supply/demand dynamic brings into play a range of other societal, economic and psychological factors such as the social construction of sexuality, the viability of alternative choices for prostitutes and clients, and the impact of regulatory regimes on the provision of sexual services. The factors which underlie each component of the supply/demand dyad are also studied and an examination is made of their dynamic interrelation. The collection emphasizes the importance of rendering policy makers alert to the evidence emerging from empirical studies conducted in different fields of enquiry, in the hope of moving beyond polarity and politics at the local, national and international level."

Human trafficking and human rights.
Segrave M
Australian Journal of Human Rights v. 14 no. 2 Apr 2009: 71-94

Anti-trafficking efforts have long tradition of engaging a human rights advocacy approach. However the approaches adopted have been clearly gendered in their focus and, as Kapur identifies, quite narrow in their scope, as they have focused primarily on the trafficking of women into the sex industry (sex trafficking), sex work and sex workers. This article argues that there is much to be gained through examining the potential for the promotion of anti-trafficking efforts that engage with international human rights instruments beyond the existing trafficking-specific framework, the 'Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Person, Especially Women and Children' (an Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime 2000). The central argument here is that the current international approach to trafficking in persons is focused primarily on law and order, where criminal justice efforts at the foundation of the framework to address and eradicate this practice. The parameters of the overarching convention clearly establish an agenda that emphasizes the trafficking in persons as cross-border criminal activity. This article draws upon the author's research on the Australian response to people trafficking, and on 'Freedom, Respect, Equality, Dignity: Action', the major NGO report to the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural rights regarding Australia's implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. It is argued that the framework of this offers an alternative position from which to advocate for a more comprehensive understanding of, and response to, trafficking in person.

Without sex : slavery, trafficking in persons and the exploitation of labour in Australia.
Cullen M and McSherry B
Alternative Law Journal v. 34 no. 1 2009 4-10

Trafficking in persons into Australia has recently received increasing attention from the media, the parliament and the public. The primary focus has been on slavery and trafficking in persons for sexual exploitation, rather than on other forms of labour exploitation. This article examines some of the justification for broadening the criminal justice response to slavery and trafficking, drawing on case studies from civil proceedings brought by the Workplace Ombudsman and the Inquiry into Australia's Temporary Migration Scheme undertaken by the Joint Standing Committee on Migration. To date the debate has been characterised by a primary perception of the criminal law as a means through which to condemn sexual exploitation. This article argues that a broader focus is required.

See more resources on Sex workers and sexual assault in the AIFS library catalogue

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