Young offenders and sexual assault bibliography

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Sibling sexual abuse : offending patterns and dynamics in conferences.
DalyK and Wade D
Hayden, Anne, ed. Gelsthorpe, Loraine, ed. Kingi, Venezia Marlene, ed. Morris, Allison, ed. A restorative approach to family violence : changing tack. Farnham, England : Ashgate Publishing, 2014. 9781472412300: 185-195

This chapter considers the issues and use of using family conferences in cases of sibling child sexual abuse. It reviews data from conferences in South Australia to discuss the characteristics, dynamics, and elements of these cases, including power imbalances and the conflicting dual roles of parents in supporting both children.

Restorative justice in the Australian criminal justice system
Joudo J
Canberra : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2014.

"In 2001, Heather Strang prepared a report for the Criminology Research Council summarising restorative justice programs in Australia. Since that time, restorative justice practices have become mainstream in Australian juvenile justice and have been extended for use with adult offenders. The question, 'does it work?' is asked of all interventions in the criminal justice field and is most often answered by assessing the impact on reoffending. On this point, the evidence for restorative justice remains mixed. However, the literature is replete with reports of high levels of victim satisfaction and feelings that the process is fair. Further, while some significant issues remain, research conducted to date consistently demonstrates that restorative justice programs work at least as well as formal criminal justice responses. The purpose of this report is twofold; to describe and provide an overview of restorative justice programs in Australia in order to build on Heather Strang's 2001 review and provide an assessment of current and future issues facing restorative justice practice. "--Publisher abstract.

Short research report : a brief report of the characteristics of adolescents with identified sexually abusive behaviours referred to a forensic child and youth mental health service.
Withington T, Ogilvie J and Watt B
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand v. 5 no. 1 Jun 2013: 40-44

This article explores the characteristics of adolescents with sexually abusive behaviours referred to a child and youth forensic mental health service in Queensland, who have minimal or no contact with criminal justice systems. In line with international studies, this sample reported high rates of removal from the family, physical and emotional abuse, learning and language difficulties, and social deficits. This study adds to the research on the early identification and treatment of at risk youth.

Psychological and behavioural characteristics of females who sexually offend : insights from psychotherapeutic work in New Zealand.
Robson M and Lambie I
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand v. 5 no. 1 Jun 2013: 33-39

This article provides information on the psychological and behavioural characteristics of female sexual offenders. The article draws on case files from twenty years of practice with child, adolescent and adult female sexual offenders, as well as the current theoretical foundations informing work with female sexual offenders, in particular Bowlby's attachment theory.

Sibling sexual abuse
Stathopoulos M
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2012.

Sibling sexual abuse is a hidden and under-reported form of sexual abuse. This paper describes the nature and impact of sibling sexual abuse, and reviews the literature on prevalence, barriers to disclosure, issues of consent and criminal responsibility in Australia, and the implications for therapeutic interventions for the family.

Adolescents with sexually abusive behaviours and their families: best interests case practice model : specialist practice resource
Pratt R, Miller R and Boyd C
Melbourne : Dept of Human Services, 2012.

This resource, for child protection and family services in Victoria, provides guidance for working with young people with sexually abusive behaviours and their families. The resource consists of two parts: an overview of issues for young people with sexually abusive behaviours, and a practice tool for guidance on working with these young people. This practice tool discusses information gathering, analysis and planning, treatment action, and reviewing outcomes.

Child sexual abuse and subsequent offending and victimisation: a 45 year follow-up study
Ogloff J, Cutajar M, Mann E and Mullen P
Canberra, ACT : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2012.

"Up to 30 percent of children experience childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and whether this impacts re-victimisation or offending as an adult has been the subject of numerous studies. This study investigates whether a disproportionate number of CSA victims subsequently perpetrate offences and experience future victimisation compared with people who have not been sexually abused. In a sample of 2,759 CSA victims who were abused between 1964 and 1995, it was found CSA victims were almost five times more likely than the general population to be charged with any offence than their non-abused counterparts, with strongest associations found for sexual and violent offences. CSA victims were also more likely to have been victims of crime, particularly crimes of a sexual or violent nature."--Foreword.

Baseline sentencing report (PDF)
Sullivan N and Ritchie D
Melbourne, Vic. : Sentencing Advisory Council, 2012.

In 2011, the Victorian Attorney-General asked the Sentencing Advisory Council for advice on the introduction of a baseline sentencing scheme, to govern the way in which higher courts will sentence the majority of offences. This report presents the findings of the Council, regarding the offences that should be included in the scheme, the baseline levels for those offences, how the scheme should operate in practice, and the likely effects of the scheme on prisoner numbers. It includes recommendations for crimes including rape, incest, child sexual abuse, homicide, kidnapping, manslaughter, and assault - for adult, youth, and young offenders.

Working with sibling sexual abuse (Gatehouse Centre)
Tarczon C
Melbourne, Vic : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2012.

This interview discusses the change to a more holistic approach in working with sexually abusive behaviour by children and young people. Helen Kambouridis is a Senior Psychologist at the Gatehouse Centre for the Assessment and Treatment of Child Abuse at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne. In this interview, she talks about sibling sexual assault, the treatment for children and young people with sexually abusive behaviour, family-based therapy, the role of shame for perpetrators, and the impact on parents.

Contemporary practice with young people who sexually abuse : evidence-based developments
Calder M
Lyme Regis U.K. : Russell House, 2011.

"This latest collection of articles reflects the most recent developments in the field while offering practical information about how to apply these innovations to your practice. It offers a unique overview of the current state of where we are, as well as indicating what we still need to know. The internationally recognized authors from England, Scotland, Ireland, Canada and the United States span several different professional disciplines ..."

Dangerousness, risk and the governance of serious sexual and violent offenders
Harrison K
London : Routledge, c2011.

"[This book is a] guide on those offenders who are often assessed as being dangerous. Outlining, evaluating and commenting on specific methods, regimes and strategies for dealing with dangerous offenders throughout each chapter, this book begins by considering what a dangerous offender is and providing a brief historical account of how the label has been used for different types of offender over the last three or four centuries. The book examines sentencing policy in addition to early and current dangerousness legislation, evaluating the available sentences specifically designed for dangerous offenders and assessing their use and appropriateness. The role of risk and risk assessment tools is discussed, considering what risk assessment is, the way in which it works and how over recent times it has become more reliable and valid. It looks at the practical realities of how serious sexual and violent offenders are dealt with by the penal system in England and Wales. Finally, specific offender groups are considered, including female offenders, children and young people and mentally disordered offenders. Each chapter considers whether there are any differences in terms of policy, assessment and management strategies when sentencing and managing each distinct group; and if not whether any such modifications are required."

Recorded crime - offenders, Australia 2009-10.
Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011.

This report presents statistics on offenders in Australia, for the 2009/2010 year. It includes statistics recorded by police for offenders who were proceeded against by police during this period, for all states and territories. Statistics include: offender rates, principal offence, young offenders, age and sex, repeat offenders, Indigenous offenders, and police proceedings and court actions. Principal offences listed are homicide, acts intended to cause injury, sexual assault, dangerous and negligent acts, robbery and extortion, unlawful entry with intent, theft, deception, illicit drugs, weapons and explosives, property damage, public order offences, and offences against justice. The report also describes the criminal justice system in Australia and data collection issues.

Developmental, individual and family characteristics of specialist, versatile, and short-duration adolescent sex offenders.
Nisbet I, Smallbone S and Wortley R
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand v. 2 no. 2 Feb 2010: 34-47

This article compares the developmental pathways of three types of adolescent sex offenders - specialist sex offenders, versatile offenders, and short duration sex offenders. 108 adjudicated adolescent males attending an assessment and treatment service in Queensland were studied, regarding developmental characteristics, individual characteristics, and family functioning, including abuse histories, conduct problems, personality traits, externalizing and internalising behaviours, parental involvement, parental supervision, positive parenting practices, inconsistent discipline, and corporal punishment.

Applied restorative justice as a complement to systemic family therapy : theory and practice implications for families experiencing intra-familial adolescent sibling incest.
McNevin E
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy v. 31 no. 1 Mar 2010: 60-72

This article considers the impact on and therapeutic responses to families where there has been intra-familial sexual assault by an adolescent member of the family against another younger member of the family. In doing so, the article will specifically highlight the nexus between systemic family therapy ideas and an applied restorative justice response in the form of Youth Justice Conferencing, as experienced through working as a family therapist in the area of adolescent sexual offending.

Recorded crime - offenders, Australia 2008-09.
Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010.

This report presents statistics on offenders in Australia, for the 2008/2009 year. It includes statistics recorded by police for offenders who were proceeded against by police during this period, for all states and territories. Statistics include: offender rates, principal offence, young offenders, age and sex, repeat offenders, Indigenous offenders, and police proceedings and court actions. Principal offences listed are homicide, acts intended to cause injury, sexual assault, dangerous and negligent acts, robbery and extortion, unlawful entry with intent, theft, deception, illicit drugs, weapons and explosives, property damage, public order offences, and offences against justice. The report also describes the criminal justice system in Australia and data collection issues.

Protecting children from sexual violence : a comprehensive approach
Council of Europe
Strasbourg Cedex : Council of Europe Publishing, 2010.

"[This book] is divided into five parts, presenting a European overview and covering the existing legal frameworks; abuse prevention and reporting; rehabilitation and social reintegration of victims; sexual violence on the Internet; and public and private partnerships against abuse. It also sheds light on the little-known problem of children who are sexually abusing other children. In addition to providing thorough information on the many facets of this complex subject, this publication also highlights new concepts, facts and recommendations. Foremost is the significant lack of data on the prevalence and nature of sexual violence in Europe, underscoring the need for co-ordinated pan-European research and information gathering, which are vital to effective policy making and programme design. It also sounds the alarm for urgent co-ordinated action in various fields to drastically improve child protection through awareness raising; targeted and specialised training, intervention and therapy programmes; sex education in schools; responsible family attitudes; and justice systems with tighter abuse laws and which take account of children's special needs as reliable witnesses."

Adolescents with sexually abusive behaviours and their families : best interests case practice model : specialist practice resource (PDF)
Pratt R, Miller R and Boyd C
Melbourne : Dept of Human Services, c2010.

This resource, for child protection and family services in Victoria, provides guidance for working with young people with sexually abusive behaviours and their families. The resource consists of two parts: an overview of issues for young people with sexually abusive behaviours, and a practice tool for guidance on working with these young people. This practice tool discusses information gathering, analysis and planning, treatment action, and reviewing outcomes.

Australia's response to sexualised or sexually abusive behaviours in children and young people (PDF)
O'Brien W
Canberra : Australian Crime Commission, 2010.

This report maps the availability of therapeutic services children and young people with sexualised or sexual offending behaviours in Australia. It looks at community, youth justice, child protection, and therapeutic services designed to effect positive behavioural change and thus divert young people with sexualised behaviours from the juvenile justice system. The mapping report identifies several geographic and demographic gaps in service provision, including difficulties with eligibility criteria, referral pathways, funding arrangements and specialised workforce development. Chapters in the report include: definitions of behaviours; acknowledging that children with sexualised behaviours require specialised therapeutic care; the need for comprehensive education strategies; challenges for practitioners in the delivery of therapeutic services to young people with sexualised behaviours; youth justice: challenges to responding to young people with sexually abusive behaviours; and community-based services: the national context and general initiatives to address risk.

Hearing whispered voices: advocating for change in youth sexual assault services in the Northern Territory : community-based project report 2010 (PDF)
Kim-Baker E
Darwin, NT : Youth Minister's Round Table of Young Territorians, Northern Territory Government, 2010.

This report examines the effectiveness of sexual assault services for children and youth in the Northern Territory, and makes recommendations for reform. It reviews the availability of prevention services and respectful relationships education programs, resource allocation and coordination, the promotion of child welfare through Child Impact Statements and Analyses, and the impact of reporting and the justice system on victims. The report is based on interviews with service providers, experts and victims/survivors, focus groups and forums, and literature reviews.

Standards for the prevention, detection, response, and monitoring of sexual abuse in juvenile facilities (PDF)
United States. National Prison Rape Elimination Commission
Washington, D.C. : National Prison Rape Elimination Commission, 2009

The National Prison Rape Elimination Commission was established by the United States Congress to help protect incarcerated individuals from sexual abuse. As part of their work, the Commission has developed a set of new standards for the prevention, detection, response, and monitoring of sexual abuse. This document presents the standards for juvenile facilities, and includes information on prevention planning, response planning, training and education, resident assessment and placement, reporting, investigations, discipline, medical and mental health care, and data collection and auditing.

National Prison Rape Elimination Commission report (PDF)
United States. National Prison Rape Elimination Commission
Washington, D.C. : National Prison Rape Elimination Commission, 2009

The National Prison Rape Elimination Commission was established by the United States Congress to help protect incarcerated individuals from sexual abuse. The Commission was to study the causes and consequences of sexual abuse in confinement and to develop standards for correctional facilities nationwide that would help eliminate prison rape. This report presents the findings of the Commission's study, providing information on prevalence, risk factors and vulnerabilities, responding to victims and perpetrators, and the special situations of juvenile offenders and immigrants and detentions. The Commission has also developed new standards for the prevention, detection, response, and monitoring of sexual abuse in adult prisons and jails, juvenile facilities, community corrections, and lockups - these are published separately.

Recorded crime - offenders, selected states and territories 2007-08.
Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009.

This report presents statistics on offenders in Australia, for the 2007/2008 year. It includes statistics recorded by police for offenders who were proceeded against by police during this period, for all states and territories except Western Australia, as available. Statistics include: offender rates, principal offence, young offenders, age and sex, repeat offenders, Indigenous offenders, and police proceedings and court actions. Principal offences listed are homicide, acts intended to cause injury, sexual assault, dangerous and negligent acts, robbery and extortion, unlawful entry with intent, theft, deception, illicit drugs, weapons and explosives, property damage, public order offences, and offences against justice. The report also describes the criminal justice system in Australia and data collection issues.

Juveniles who commit sex offences against minors (PDF)
Finkelhor D, Ormrod R and Chaffin M
Washington DC : Office of Justice Programs, US Dept. of Justice, 2009.

Offending youth : sex, crime and justice
Carrington K and Pereira M
Annandale, NSW : Federation Press, 2009.

Juvenile delinquency is a relatively new concept, with children tried by the adult courts until the start of the 20th century. This book explores key patterns of juvenile delinquency in Australia and how the state and the criminal justice system have responded. Drawing on Australian studies and international trends, the book looks at such themes as policing socially marginalised 'at-risk' children, cyber-bullying, violence and sexual violence related to sport, and the rise in violent crime by girls. Chapters include: Reformatories, training schools and institutions for neglected and delinquent children; The emergence of juvenile justice; Theories of sex, youth and crime; Girls and juvenile justice; Boys and juvenile justice; Aboriginal youth and the juvenile justice system; Youth, sex and violence; Ethnic gangs, riots and the policing of young people; and Youth conferences, diversion and restorative justice.

Juveniles contact with the criminal justice system in Australia
Richards K
Canberra : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2009.

This report presents data on young people's contact with the criminal justice system in the different states and territories of Australia, excepting Tasmania. It includes data on children as victims of crime, as alleged offenders in contact with the police, and as young offenders in the justice system. It compares data by age, gender, Indigenous status, and offence type. Data is also included on sentencing outcomes and supervision orders, incidence of child abuse, deaths in custody, and deaths in motor vehicle pursuits. The collection, limitations, and gaps of data in Australia are also discussed.

Intrafamilial adolescent sex offenders : psychological profile and treatment
Grant J, Indermaur D, Thornton J, Stevens G, Chamarette C and Halse A
Canberra : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2009.

Sexual abuse of children by other children or adolescents constitutes approximately 40 to 90 percent of sexual offending against children. This paper examines the nature and causes of adolescent intrafamilial sex offending and which treatment approaches are likely to be successful. Using the results of a four-year study in Western Australia, it provides an overview of intrafamilial adolescent sex offenders (IASOs), what is known about them and how they can be conceptualised. Findings show that IASOs have greater developmental trauma and family dysfunction than adult sex offenders. They also demonstrate greater levels of various behavioural difficulties associated with conduct disorders than do extrafamilial and adult sex offenders and the general population; most commonly ADHD and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Adolescent sex offender programs are based on those developed for adult offenders, with cognitive behavioural therapy the dominant model. However, these programs lack appropriate focus on developmental issues and the influence of family on offending patterns. Programs that combine a variety of treatment modalities show more promising outcomes. It is recommended that a need to understand adolescent sex offending as a health issue, rather than a moral one, allows for interventions that have the best possible chance of changing sexually inappropriate behaviour and ending the intergenerational transmission of abuse. (Publisher abstract)

Juvenile sexual offenders : a comprehensive guide to risk evaluation
Rich P
Hoboken, N.J. : John Wiley & Sons, c2009.

"The evaluation of risk for sexual re-offense in children and adolescents is quite different from risk evaluation with adult sexual offenders. Sexually abusive youth are persons-in-development, and, as such, must be understood in the social and developmental contexts of their lives, having the potential to change from year to year in their capacities, attitudes, sense of self and others, and neurobiology. With this perspective as its foundation, [this book] helps [the reader] become more sensitive and better informed in understanding, assessing, and treating this unique population."

Sexual abuse assessments : using and developing frameworks for practice
Calder M
Lyme Regis England : Russell House Pub., 2009.

Sex offending : causal theories to inform research, prevention, and treatment
Stinson J, Sales B and Becker J
Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, c2008.

"Why do some men commit sex offenses? This is a simple question with a very complex answer. In this book, the authors review and critique existing theories and the supporting literature addressing the reasons adolescent and adult males commit such acts as child molestation, rape, voyeurism, indecent exposure, and other violent offenses against adults and children. Chapters explore numerous theories of etiology, including biological, cognitive, behavioral, social learning, personality-psychodynamic, and evolutionaty theories, as well as those that incorporate two or more of these viewpoints. The authors then present their original integrative theory of sex offending and describe how it may influence future research endeavours as well as prevention and treatment efforts with these populations."

Intrafamilial adolescent sex offenders : family functioning and treatment.
Thornton J, Stevens G, Grant J, Indermaur D, Chamarette C and Halse A
Journal of Family Studies v. 14 no. 2-3 Oct 2008 Special issue: Innovative approaches to family violence: 362-375

This paper examines the families of intrafamilial adolescent sex offenders attending a community-based treatment program. Qualitative and quantitative data were used to measure family functioning before and after 12 months of treatment. Families were characterised as disorganised, uncommunicative and adversarial. Most of the young offenders, many of whom were themselves victims of abuse, came from step-, blended or foster families. Seventy-four per cent had no, or minimal, contact with at least one biological parent. Conflicts between family members were rarely resolved satisfactorily. After treatment, interviewees reported better family communication and fewer conflicts; there were also significant improvements on a measure of family functioning. Adolescents and their parents reported improvements in self-control, social skills and emotional regulation. Improvements were more likely when at least one parent was engaged in treatment. These findings emphasise the need for treatment to target parents as well as the adolescent offender when intrafamilial sexual abuse occurs.

See more resources on Young offenders and sexual assault in the AIFS library catalogue

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