Bullying

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Protective factors against the impact of school bullying perpetration and victimization on young adult externalizing and internalizing problems.
HemphillS, Tollit M and Herrenkohl T
Journal of School Violence v. 13 no. 1 2014: 125-145

This article examines the later impact of adolescent bullying in early adulthood, and the protective individual and family factors involved. It presents findings from a study of over 650 Victorians young people, comparing self-reported bullying perpetration and victimization at ages 16-17 years and externalising and internalising problems at ages 18-19 years.

Adolescent peer aggression and its association with mental health and substance use in an Australian cohort.
Moore S, Norman R, Sly P, Whitehouse A, Zubrick S and Scott J
Journal of Adolescence v. 37 no. 1 Jan 2014: 11-21

This article examines the association between aggression in early adolescence and mental health or drug use in later adolescence. Using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study, it compares involvement in any type of peer aggression - whether as a victim, perpetrator, or both - at 14 years of age, and later depression, internalising symptoms, and harmful alcohol or substance use at 17 years of age. The study features 1590 participants.

Belonging and connection of school students with disability (PDF)
Robinson S
Clifton Hill : Children with Disability Australia, 2014

This paper examines the experiences (both positive and negative) of students with a disability in primary and secondary schools. It focuses especially on the sense of belonging and connection felt by students, and considers how these might be helpful in promoting and building inclusion in schools.

Bullying in early adolescence and antisocial behavior and depression six years later : what are the protective factors?
Vassallo S, Edwards B, Renda J and Olsson C
Journal of School Violence v. 13 no. 1 2014: 100-124

This article investigates what factors protect adolescent bullies from becoming antisocial young adults in later life, as well as what factors protect adolescent victims of bullying from subsequent depression in young adulthood. It uses data from the Australian Temperament Project, a longitudinal study of development through life. Identifying potentially modifiable factors will allow the development of targeted interventions to help reduce the negative impacts of bullying for both victims and offenders.

The state of Victoria's children 2012: early childhood : a report on how Victoria's young children are faring (PDF)
Victoria. Dept. of Education and Early Childhood Development
Melbourne : Dept. of Education and Early Childhood Development, 2013.

This annual report series provides an overview of how children are faring in Victoria, serving as an evidence base to support planning and policy development. The 2012 report looks at early childhood, identifying how children from birth to eight and their families are doing against indicators of health, wellbeing, development, learning, and safety, and identifying where government assistance might be needed. The latest data is included for such topics as health, immunisation, breastfeeding, birth weight, obesity, wellbeing, developmental vulnerability, emotional problems, stressful life events, preschool participation, child care attendance, child care standards, parental involvement in learning, achievement in grade 3, neighbourhood safety, parental employment, housing, bullying, accidents, family violence, and child abuse substantiations. Some statistics for Aboriginal children and children for different family types are also included, as are examples of good practice and key government programs and policies.

The role of emerging communication technologies in experiences of sexual violence : a new legal frontier? Executive summary [Reprint]
Bluett-Boyd N, Fileborn B, Quadara A and Moore S
Journal of the Home Economics Institute of Australia v. 20 no. 2 2013: 25-29

This research study investigates how communication technologies facilitate sexual violence against young people and what challenges this presents for the Victorian criminal justice system. Based on interviews with young people and professionals working with young people, it examines the effects of technology on the lives of young people, the interface between emerging communication technologies and experiences of sexual violence, and the factors that enable or hinder appropriate legal responses. Communication technologies such as online social networking sites and mobile phones are considered, and their use in identifying and grooming potential victims, blackmail and intimation, sexting, harassment, and pornography. This article reproduces the executive summary of the main report, which summarises key findings, research design, and key messages of the study.

Teacher education, teaching experience and bullying policies : links with early childhood teachers' perceptions and attitudes to bullying.
Goryl O, Neilsen-Hewett C and Sweller N
Australasian Journal of Early Childhood v. 38 no. 2 Jun 2013: 32-40

This study aimed to examine early childhood teachers' understanding and attitudes towards bullying and investigate whether anti-bullying policies were utilised in early childhood services. One hundred and eighty eight early childhood educators in Queensland, Australia were surveyed about bullying among young children. The majority of early childhood teachers (93 per cent) believed young children were capable of bullying, and felt confident to identify and manage incidences of bullying. Results revealed a significant relationship between teacher education and perceived confidence in identifying bullying, with university-qualified educators feeling more confident than TAFE-trained educators. Findings are discussed in respect of the importance of anti-bullying policies in early childhood educational contexts.

Parental involvement in preventing and responding to cyberbullying.
Robinson E
Family Matters no. 92 2013: 68-76

Parents play a critical role in ensuring their children's responsible and safe use of online services, as part of a whole-of-community response to cyberbullying. This article helps practitioners and other professionals assist parents in clarifying their roles and helping teenage children engage in responsible online behaviour. It outlines definitions and statistics related to cyberbullying, explains the differences between cyberbullying and 'offline' bullying, and discusses parents' roles and involvement in preventing and responding to cyberbullying incidents. The article also provides information on additional sources of advice and support.

Bullying in schools and its relation to parenting and family life.
Rigby K
Family Matters no. 92 2013: 61-67

Drawing on the international research, this article examines the association between parenting factors and the involvement of children in bullying at school, whether as bullies or victims. Topics include: parental awareness and beliefs about bullying; insecure attachment and later involvement in bullying; family functioning; parenting style; and the role of low or excessive self-esteem. The article concludes with the implications for parent education.

Understanding violence : context and practice in the human services
Taylor A and Connolly M
Christchurch, N.Z. : Canterbury University Press, 2013.

This book provides insight into the causes and impacts of violence, and how the human services sector can respond and help address this violence. Chapters are written by international authors but focus largely on the New Zealand context. Chapters include: Community violence in Aotearoa New Zealand, by Trevor Bradley; Culture and violence, by Yvonne Crichton-Hill and Nikki Evans; Notions of restorative justice and violence, by Cora van Vliet-Ruissen and Annabel Taylor; Violence and the media, by Liz Beddoe; Risk and social networking, by Maria Perez-y-Perez; Women and violence, by Sophie Goldingay and Annabel Taylor; Intimate partner violence, by Yvonne Crichton-Hill and Annabel Taylor; Working at the front line in domestic violence, by Hillary Haldane; Violence toward children, by Menka Tsantefski and Marie Connolly; Elder abuse and neglect, by Hong-Jae Park; Sexual offending in contemporary contexts, by Andrew Frost; School bullying and violence, by Karen Due Theilade; Gang violence, by Jarrod Gilbert; and Animal-human relationships and human-animal abuse, by Nikki Evans and Claire Gray

Children's experiences of unfriendly behaviour.
Lodge J and Baxter J
The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children annual statistical report 2012. Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2013: 93-111

This chapter reports on children's experiences of unfriendly behaviour or bullying at age 10-11 years old in Australia. Using data from 'Growing Up in Australia, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children' (LSAC), the chapter looks at boys' and girls' experiences of name-calling, social exclusion, shoving or hitting, or note-writing; number of types of unfriendly behaviours experienced; child, family and school characteristics associated with experiences of unfriendly behaviours; children's relationships with peers, teachers and parents and their feelings about school; and how experiences of unfriendly behaviours relate to aspects of social-emotional wellbeing. The chapter also compares parent, teacher and child reports on children's experiences of bullying victimisation. The findings highlight the significant prevalence of bullying victimisation, and the differences in overt and covert bullying behaviours and victim characteristics and willingness to disclose bullying.

An exploration of strength of ethnic identity, acculturation and experiences of bullying and victimisation in Australian school children.
Roberts R and Ali F
Children Australia v. 38 no. 1 Mar 2013: 6-14

School bullying and victimisation is a pervasive problem within schools. Research within Australian schools has not considered the relationship that ethnicity, strength of ethnic identity or acculturation orientation may have with bullying and victimisation. A self-report measure was completed by 421 children (mean age = 11.8 years, SD = 0.6). Ethnic majority children reported experiencing more direct and indirect victimisation than ethnic minority children. For ethnic minority children, weaker ethnic identity was associated with direct victimisation. Ethnic minority children who adopted an assimilation acculturation orientation experienced more direct victimisation in comparison with ethnic minority children who adopted an integration acculturation orientation. Ethnicity and acculturation are important aspects to consider when understanding bullying and victimisation in Australian schools and although ethnic majority children were more likely to report victimisation, weak ethnic identity and assimilation acculturation orientation leaves ethnic minority children particularly vulnerable to direct victimisation. This should be considered in the application of anti-bullying programmes within schools.

The role of emerging communication technologies in experiences of sexual violence : a new legal frontier?
Bluett-Boyd N, Fileborn B, Quadara A and Moore S
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2013.

This research study investigates how communication technologies facilitate sexual violence against young people and what challenges this presents for the Victorian criminal justice system. Based on interviews with young people and professionals working with young people, it examines the effects of technology on the lives of young people, the interface between emerging communication technologies and experiences of sexual violence, and the factors that enable or hinder appropriate legal responses. Communication technologies such as online social networking sites and mobile phones are considered, and their use in identifying and grooming potential victims, blackmail and intimation, sexting, harassment, and pornography.

Cyberbullying and the bystander: research findings and insights report (PDF)
Thomas L, Falconer S, Cross D, Monks H and Brown D
Sydney, NSW : Australian Human Rights Commission, 2012

The Cyberbullying Bystanders Project will develop a social marketing campaign for teenagers that aims to encourage cyberbullying bystanders to take positive, effective and safe action. This report presents the findings from phase one of the project, which seeks to identify the most effective strategy, messages, content and technology to be used to undertake a social marketing campaign targeted at young people aged 13 to 17 years old. Based on consultations with young people, it investigates how the barriers to bystander action can be removed, what would motivate bystanders to take action, and the most effective content, messages, and platforms to target this group.

Bullying in schools
Sampson R
Washington, DC : U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2012.

"There is always concern about school violence, and police have assumed greater responsibility for helping school officials ensure students' safety. As pressure increases to place officers in schools, police agencies must decide how best to contribute to student safety. This guide provides police with information about the causes and extent of bullying in schools and recommendations for developing effective approaches and practices that contribute to student safety."

Rates of bullying perpetration and victimisation : a longitudinal study of secondary school students in Victoria, Australia.
Hemphill S, Tollit M and Kotevski A
Pastoral Care in Education v. 30 no. 2 Jun 2012: 99-112

This article examines the extent of bullying in secondary schools in Australia. Based on a longitudinal survey of nearly 800 adolescent students in Victoria, it reports on the rates of bullying perpetration and victimization, including traditional face-to-face bullying, cyberbullying, and relational aggression, and compares differences in the experiences of boys and girls and over a 3 year period from grade 9 to grade 11.

Investigating cyberbullying : emerging research and e-safety strategies within families and communities.
Burgess J and McLoughlin C
Communities, Children and Families Australia v. 6 no. 1 Jun 2012: 3-12

As new technologies and ways of communicating become increasingly central to daily life, new forms of social aggression using digital tools are emerging globally. Social networking technologies have brought about opportunities to engage in cyberbullying and place considerable pressures on families, schools and communities to remain informed and vigilant to this developing phenomenon. While research findings suggest that up to one in four children report being cyberbullied, the impact of this negative behaviour is often hidden from parents, carers, teachers and the broader community. This paper aims to provide an overview of the forms and effects of cyberbullying by reviewing the research literature, the incidence of, and factors contributing to cyberbullying. The paper also explores emerging approaches to developing e-safety strategies across Australia.

Social networking sites and the dangers they pose to youth : some Australian findings.
Karklins L and Dalton D
Current Issues in Criminal Justice v. 24 no. 2 Nov 2012: 205-222

This article explores the prevalence and risk of cyberbullying and sexual predation for young people on social networking sites. Based on a survey of young people in South Australia, it examines the specific risks associated with social networking sites, young people's understanding of these risks, and how they manage them.

Peaceful and compassionate futures : positive relationships as an antidote to violence.
Hromek R and Walsh A
Roffey, Sue, ed. Positive relationships : evidence based practice across the world. Dordrecht : Springer, 2012. 9789400756588: 35-53

This chapter presents two case studies that show how building relationship skills and values in young people can help address community violence. Case study 1 - 'Planting the peace virus' - shows how a primary school in New South Wales addressed a culture of violence and bullying through a whole-of-school approach. Case study 2 - 'Preventing violence against women and children' - discusses school-based respectful relationship education, such as the Love Bites program for high-school students.

100+ questions kids have about bullying
Interrelate Family Centres
Bella Vista, N.S.W. : Interrelate Family Centres, 2012.

Aimed at children and their parents, this book is a collection of common questions that children have about bullying. Issues covered include the nature of bullying, types of bullying, effects of bullying, and how it can be stopped. The provided answers aim to answer the question simply and honestly, and aim to help parents open discussions with their children about their own views.

The Finch bumper book of parenting : ages 2-6
Warriewood, N.S.W. : Finch Publishing, 2012.

This book presents advice for parents on a range of issues of parenting preschool aged children. Topics include: social skills, bullying, the benefits of play, emotional development, anxiety, behaviour problems, fathering, and discipline. Authors include: Steve Biddulph, Ken & Elizabeth Mellor, John Irvine, Vicky Flory, Evelyn Field, Richard Fletcher, Patricia McVeagh & Eve Reed, Janet Hall, John Cooper and Tania Andrusiak & Daniel Donahoo. The chapters are excerpts from a selection of Australian parenting books previously published by Finch Publishing.

A theoretically grounded exploration of the social and emotional outcomes of transition to secondary school.
Waters S, Lester L, Wenden E and Cross D
Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling v. 22 no. 2 2012: 190-205

This article explores the impact of the transition from primary to secondary school on students? social and emotional health. As part of the Supportive Schools Project longitudinal study in Western Australia, it interviewed over 15000 students at the start and end of their first year of secondary school, regarding their transition experience, social health or victimisation, peer support, loneliness, sense of safety at school, connectedness to school, and emotional health.

Internalising symptoms : an antecedent or precedent in adolescent peer victimisation.
Lester L, Dooley J, Cross D and Shaw T
Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling v. 22 no. 2 2012: 173-189

This article investigates the association between bullying, anxiety, and depression in adolescence - focusing on the direction of causality between peer victimisation and internalising behaviour problems. Drawing on data from the Supportive Schools Project longitudinal study from Western Australia, it examines the transition from primary to secondary school for young people aged from 11 to 14. This period is a critical time in adolescent development, with the onset of puberty, changes in social structures and peer relations, and the risk of social isolation, bullying, and mental health problems.

The invisibility of covert bullying among students : challenges for school intervention.
Barnes A, Cross D, Lester L, Hearn L, Epstein M and Monks H
Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling v. 22 no. 2 2012: 206-226

Covert bullying is distinguished by non-physical, subtle, disguised or hidden behaviours which nevertheless cause emotional distress and damage. As part of the Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study, this article reports on the attitudes and knowledge of school staff about covert bullying, as well as staff access to effective whole-school strategies and skills to address such bullying. Over 400 staff from 106 schools across Australia were surveyed.

A cyberbullying intervention with primary-aged students.
Toshack T and Colmar S
Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling v. 22 no. 2 2012: 268-278

This article evaluates the efficacy of a new cyberbullying intervention aimed at primary school students. Participants were 5 female grade 6 students in New South Wales, who were tested on their knowledge of cyberbullying and safety strategies before and after the program.

Cyber-bullying and trolling.
Nicol S
Youth Studies Australia v. 31 no. 4 Dec 2012: 3-4

This article outlines what is known about cyberbullying and how young people can respond to such bullying.

Relationships with peers : the special case of bullying.
Nielsen-Hewett C and Bussey K
Bowes, Jennifer, ed. Grace, Rebekah, ed. Hodge, Kerry, ed. Children, families and communities : contexts and consequences. 4th ed. South Melbourne, Vic. : Oxford University Press, 2012. 9780195576740: 176-196

This textbook explores child development and the interconnectedness of children, families and communities in Australia. This chapter reviews the contexts and consequences of bullying in childhood and adolescence. It discusses factors predicting bullying and victimisation, impact on child development, and approaches to intervention in schools. The chapter concludes with exercises for students.

Snapshot 2012 : children and young people in Queensland
Queensland. Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian.
Brisbane, Qld. : Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian, 2012.

This series provides an annual snapshot of the status of children and young people in Queensland. It is designed to inform social policy planning and to support improvements to the safety and wellbeing of young Queenslanders. The 2012 report updates and expands on information provided in previous reports, and draws together population data and statistics on issues including family types, determinants of health, health problems, early childhood education and care, education, bullying, causes of death, child protection, victims of crime and young offenders, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

The relationship between children's peer relations at school and the quality of parenting and family life.
Rigby K
25-27th July 2012

How children relate to their peers has important implications for their current and future psychological wellbeing. Parents and family life can play an important part in minimising the risk that children can become involved in repeated negative interactions with their peers at school. Over the last 20 years, research on the family and parental correlates of problem behaviour in schools has gradually accumulated, especially in identifying precursors of bully/victim problems among students. It is now evident that insecure attachment to a caregiver in the early years of infancy, as well as dysfunctional family life at a later stage, can lead to serious relationship problems with other school children. This presentation draws on the author's own research in this area, as well as other published sources, to identify and discuss family-based factors that impact on children's interpersonal behaviour with peers.

A picture of Australia's children 2012
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2012.

This report provides updated data on how Australia's children are faring. Statistics are presented against key national indicators of child health, development and wellbeing, including the Children's Headline Indicators. Topics include mortality, disability, breastfeeding, dental health, physical activity, nutrition, early childhood education, transition to school, literacy and numeracy, social and emotional development, teenage births, birth weight, alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy, family functioning, family economic situation, parental health, non-parental care, neighbourhood safety, social capital, injuries, bullying, child abuse, violence, crime, homelessness, immunisation and screening, child care, and child protection. Though Australian children are doing well in some areas, there is still room for improvement, especially for children from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander backgrounds or from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas.

See more resources on Bullying in the AIFS library catalogue

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