Aged care - policy and services

This bibliography provides a selection of recent references from the Australian Family & Society Abstracts database with relevance to policy development and service planning. Family Thesaurus terms aged and policy or services were used and items were chosen to address the topic and to demonstrate the range of documents available in the database including journal articles, conference papers, government reports, research papers etc.

The publications listed are held in the Australian Institute of Family Studies Library and can be borrowed via the inter library loan system or acquired directly from the issuing body. Direct links to documents on the Web are provided when available.

References are arranged alphabetically by title in the following sections:

 

Caring for the aged

Aged care in Australia: past, present and future.
Bruen, Warwick
Australasian Journal on Ageing v.24 no.3 Sept 2005: 130-133

Three factors - assessment, expansion of community services and quality of care - have been crucial to the enormous achievements in aged care over the last 20 years. The author examines current issues in aged care and discusses key priorities for future development: further expansion of community care, consumer choice, upgrading of assessment, cross sector coordination, managing dementia, quality of care, and research and data collection.

Challeges of an ageing population: investigating prospects for financially disadvantaged older Australians.
Angley, Philippa; Waterhouse, Catherine

Brotherhood Comment Aug 2005: 6-7, and Online (whole issue PDF 525K)

National statistics show a shift in the distribution of wealth that favours older Australians. This article suggests that policy responses to the problems of an ageing population will expect older people to fund their own care costs. It describes the likely impact of such responses on financially disadvantaged older people.

Diverse strategies for diverse carers: the cultural context of family carers in NSW.
Cardona, Beatriz; Chalmers, Sharon; Neilson, Brett
Parramatta, NSW: Centre for Cultural Research, University of Western Sydney for the Department of Ageing, Disability and Home Care, 2006, 66p, tables, Online (PDF 193 KB)

This research into the everyday experiences of carers from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) and Anglo Australian backgrounds aimed to increase awareness and understanding of the diversity of caring experiences, and the inter relationship of cultural, socio economic and gender issues in shaping these experiences. The report examines cultural dimensions of family responsibility towards the elderly, factors influencing service use and non use, caregiver burden, workforce development issues, under utilisation of services, language barriers, dealing with disability issues, carers and mental health issues, notions of entitlements and citizenship rights, and carers in a global and cross cultural context.

Functional interdependence.
Del Aguila, Mark; Cox, Lisa; Lee, Louisa
Australasian Journal on Ageing v.25 no.3 Sept 2006: 134-139, figures, tables

The interrelationship between functional capacity, informal networks and the physical environment of the residence and residential location is used to describe age care service utilisation and non utilisation. Discriminant function analyses indicated home care applications are related to network isolation within existing neighbourhoods and that day care applicant networks were insufficient to accommodate challenges presented by the immediate physical environment of the residence. The physical environment of the residence also distinguished home care applicants from day care applicants. The findings support the proposed model of functional interdependence that describes service utilisation and non utilisation as a function of the interrelationship between functional capacity and the capacity of family, friends, neighbours and communities of interest to accommodate challenges present in the elder person's residence and residential context. (Journal abstract, edited)

Living, caring, working: policy responses to an ageing population and shrinking workforce.
Johnson, Emily

In: From Welfare to Social Investment: Reimagining Social Policy for the Life Course: conference presentations. Parkville, Vic: Centre for Public Policy, University of Melbourne, 2007, 6p, Online (PDF 80 KB)

Australia's ageing population and the trend towards community care rather than residential or institutional care for older people indicates that increasing numbers of people will become unpaid carers of family members, friends and neighbours. Most of these carers are likely to be women. Lack of alternative care arrangements, lack of workplace flexibility, tax disincentives and the high cost of paid care mean that many carers leave jobs to meet their care responsibilities. Drawing on international and local best practice, this paper puts forward policy responses that government and business could implement to reduce the impact, socially and economically, of unpaid care.

Social policy for family caregivers of elderly: a Canadian, Japanese and Australian comparison.
Harvey, Carol D H; Yoshino, Satomi
Marriage and Family Review v.39 no.1 - no.2 2006: 143-158, table

What are the expected familial roles for care of the frail elderly in Japan, Australia and Canada, and how do these roles relate to government aged care policy? Government research reports and policy documents from each of the above countries were analysed for this study. The article summarises the history of elder care in each country, before comparing the philosophy of their current aged care policies.

The ageing population - can we rely on informal, unpaid care to provide? Policy implications of the findings of the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling study 'Who's going to care? Informal care and an ageing population'.
Austin, Julie

Canberra, ACT: Carers Australia, 2005, 31p, and Online (PDF 544 KB)

The Brotherhood of St Laurence, commissioned the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling to model the supply and availability of carers over the next 30 years as our population ages and the demand for care increases. Results published in the ensuing May 2004 report 'Who's going to care - informal care and the ageing population' show a dramatic drop in the ratio of carers to older people needing care. This paper discusses some of the implications of this shifting balance and the immediate issues that need to be addressed. It also explains the background to the report and its findings, and highlights some of the far reaching and difficult issues that will need to be confronted over the coming decades.

The changing balance of government and family in care for the elderly in Sweden and other European countries.
Sundstrom, Gerdt; Johansson, Lennarth
Australasian Journal on Ageing v.24 no.2 Jun 2005 Supplement: S5-S11, tables

Patterns of care for the elderly have changed dramatically in Sweden over the post-war years, and new trends have emerged in the last decade. Relatively fewer elderly are institutionalised or use public Home Help and more are helped by family members. The family structure of the elderly in Sweden is more favourable today than before for providing help: more elders are married (or cohabit) and stay married longer and more of them have children and other kin than previously. Although old parents and their offspring very seldom live together, they often do not live far apart. Social services increasingly target elders who are short on kin, very frail and live alone, a pattern that is common in European countries. Both carers and cared for elderly persons want shared responsibility, that state and family together provide for frail elders. Paradoxically, more elders are cared for longer and more by their families, but eventually also a larger proportion of elders than before use public services; in particular, more elderly persons now use institutional care for some period before the end of their life than previously. This paper draws on evidence across 50 years of shifting patterns in Swedish old age care and makes comparisons with living arrangements and patterns of care in several western European countries. (Journal abstract)

Under pressure: older people and their carers.
Johnson, Victoria; Nelms, Lucy

Brotherhood Comment Apr 2007: 6-7, and Online (whole issue PDF 263K)

This article summarises the findings of the Outcomes for Older People study, undertaken by the Brotherhood of St Laurence and La Trobe University, which examined older Victorians' use of community services. Older people with complex or chronic needs were interviewed at three month intervals over 12 months. 45 participants remained in the study throughout. The study found that carers experience a burden of stress, caused by a complex interrelationship of client, carer and service factors. It also revealed that this burden can be a barrier to clients' uptake of community services and recommends that further consideration should be given to ways and means of providing practical and emotional support to carers.

Who cares? The cost of caring in Australia 2002 to 2005.
Lymer, Sharyn; Percival, Richard; Harding, Ann
Canberra, ACT: AMP, 2006, 25p, tables, figures, (AMP.NATSEM income and wealth report no.13), Online (PDF 674 KB)

The paper argues that the cost of care, both direct and indirect, is set to be a major policy issue for Australia during the coming decades. It affects many Australians - currently one in eight provides some form of care to children, people who are disabled, chronically ill or elderly, often at great personal cost. Two important trends likely to impact on child care and the care of the disabled and aged people are a continuing rise in women's labour force participation and the ageing of Australia's population. These will lead to a steady fall in the "caretaker ratio", signalling increasing pressures that will be faced by families and their communities as the demand for elder care grows. The report examines current patterns of care in Australia and associated costs, looks at caring for children, caring for the disabled and elderly, the time it takes, the costs it carries, child care costs, the cost of caring for disabled and older persons, caring in the future, labour force changes, and population ageing.

Disability

Disability services in the Northern Territory: background paper.
Northern Territory. Department of Health and Community Services

Darwin, NT: Northern Territory Department of Health and Community Services, 2006, 36p, tables, figures, Online (PDF 407 KB)

The paper was prepared for the Review of Disability Services in the NT which was conducted during 2006. It begins with an overview of the agency responsible for delivering support and services to people with disabilities in Northern Territory (the Aged and Disability Services Program), and goes on to outline the disability program, assessment methods, funding and resource allocation, operating environment, and programs delivered.

Funding and operation of the Commonwealth State/Territory Disability Agreement.
Australia. Parliament. Senate. Standing Committee on Community Affairs

Canberra, ACT: Parliament of Australia, 2007, 156p, figures, tables, Online (PDF 743 KB)

As a result of criticism of the Commonwealth State/Territory Disability Agreement (CSTDA) by people with disabilities, advocacy groups, state and territory governments and the Australian National Audit Office, the Standing Committee on Community Affairs was asked to inquire into the funding and operation of the CSTDA. This report presents the Committee's findings and recommendations on the following aspects: intent and effect of current and previous CSTDAs; appropriateness of joint funding arrangements; unmet need; the ageing / disability interface; alternative funding arrangements for disability services; shared areas of responsibility.

Modelling spatial distribution of disability in older persons and the need for aged care in New South Wales.
Brown, Laurie; Lymer, Sharyn; Yap, Mandy; Singh, Mohan; Harding, Ann

In: Australian Social Policy Conference 2005. Sydney, NSW: Social Policy Research Centre, 2005, 28p, Online only (MS Word)

Estimating disability levels in older Australians and their demographic and socioeconomic profiles is essential for identifying the need for aged care services and for the development and implementation of effective social policy on ageing. However, there is a paucity of such projections in Australia especially at regional levels such as Statistical Local Areas (SLA). This paper describes the spatial microsimulation modelling and small area estimation techniques developed to estimate disability levels and need for aged care in persons aged 55 years or above living in NSW, and presents preliminary results. The results show that there are significant variations across NSW in disability levels and the need for aged care services by older persons, and that these individuals have differing levels of social and financial support available to them in their older age. The research findings should assist in the strategic planning and improved targeting of aged care services, especially in identifying areas of unmet need at the small area level. (Author abstract, edited)

Participation, ageing and disability.
Madden, Ros; Peut, Ann

In: Australia's Welfare 2005 Conference: Connected Challenges, Connecting Response, 30 November 2005 - papers. Canberra, ACT: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2005, 21p, tables, figures, Online only (PPT 707 KB)

The authors outline the extent of disability among people of all ages in Australia; differences in the experience of disability for older and younger people; care and services; and areas of participation, such as social life, volunteeering, employment, education.

The problems facing older people with a disability leaving the workforce: the need for increased inter-departmental cooperation in the provision of retirement solutions for older Australians with a significant disability.
Fante, Mathew

In: Transitions and risk: new directions in social policy: International Social Policy Conference, 23-25 February 2005. Melbourne, Vic: Centre for Public Policy, University of Melbourne, 2005, 14p, Online only (PDF 197 KB)

Commonwealth and State governments need to seek greater cooperation and coordination to develop program responses that create greater equity for people with disabilities. This paper looks at older Australians with a disability, the current attitudes in the service system, and transitional labour markets and workers with an early onset disability. The paper argues that there is a particular need for inclusive age appropriate services for people with a disability who need to make the transition to retirement. It says that current specialist services do not have the capacity to meet the demands being placed upon them.

Who will look after her when I die? Report on the Ageing Carers of People With a Disability Project.
Cameron, Jill

Footscray, Vic: Carers Victoria, 2005, 31p, Online (PDF 378 KB)

The Ageing Carers Project used a community development approach to work with unpaid carers and parents who are 65 years and over who care for someone with a disability and who live in the western metropolitan region of Melbourne. The project worked to assist the carers and to help plan for continuity of care for the person with a disability in order to ease carers' concerns about the future. This report discusses ageing carers' health and well being, issues for ageing carers identified in the literature, service system issues identified in the literature, and findings from consultations with service providers. It includes case studies.

Elder abuse

Addressing elder abuse: Western Australian case study.
Boldy, Duncan; Horner, Barbara; Crouchley, Kathy; Davey, Margaret; Boylen, Stephen
Australasian Journal on Ageing v.24 no.1 Mar 2005: 3-8, tables

The aim of this paper was to explore the extent of elder abuse in Western Australia, and associated aspects, such as the relationship of the abuser to the victim, risk factors and desirable interventions, and current knowledge and use of relevant protocols. A questionnaire was sent to over 1000 organisations and 129 general practitioners, with recipients asked to identify any known or suspected cases of elder abuse. Estimated prevalence of elder abuse was 0.58 percent in individuals over 60 years. Females and those 75 years and older were at higher risk. Financial abuse was the most common type of abuse, and frequently more than one type of abuse was suffered by the same person. The main abusers were adult children or other relatives. The authors concluded that the importance of education targeted at professionals, the general public and older people themselves was evident. Important direct interventions identified included respite care, advocacy and counselling.

Elder abuse.
Westcott, Mary

Brisbane, Qld: Parliamentary Library, Queensland Parliament, 2006, 27p, (Research brief no.2006/23), Online only (PDF 311 KB)

Elder abuse is an act that causes harm to an older person within a relationship of trust. It may take the form of physical, psychological, financial or sexual abuse or neglect. This research brief describes the type of conduct that constitutes elder abuse, provides information about the number of elderly people who suffer abuse, and examines why elder abuse occurs. It then looks at the safeguards that are in place to protect the elderly in Queensland and other Australian jurisdictions - such as through the use of domestic violence laws, guardians, the aged care complaints resolution scheme, spot checks of nursing homes, police checks. It details other measures that have been recommended by various bodies and people to reduce the incidence of elder abuse - these include mandatory reporting, amendments to the Guardianship and Administration Act 2000 (Qld) to encourage people to report instances of elder abuse, an Older Queenslanders Act, education and further studies.

'Elder abuse' and the sexual assault of older women: a new Australian policy response.
Quadara, Antonia

Aware: Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault Newsletter no.13 Dec 2006: 15-19, Online

The federal government recently announced a funding commitment to reform the response of aged care facilities to sexual and physical assault, including the introduction of a mandatory reporting system. This article summarises this reform package and discusses the policy implications of the new reforms, including issues surrounding the reporting of sexual assault of older women, and the nature of sexual assault in the context of aged care facilities.

Elder abuse and/or neglect: literature review.
Fallon, Pauline

Wellington, NZ: Ministry of Social Development, 2006, 27p, Online (Word 438K)

This report reviews current literature on elder abuse and/or neglect on both an international and a national (New Zealand) scale. It aims to document what is known about the nature and scale of it, to identify factors and circumstances that are associated with a heightened risk of elder abuse and/or neglect, and to examine ways in which various sectors of society might be mobilised in the prevention of elder abuse and neglect. Topics include definitions, rates, abuse in residential care, under-reporting, characteristics of those abused and of perpetrators, cultural and ethnic issues, service provision.

Elder abuse concerns in Indigenous communities.
Harris, Nick

Queensland Centre for the Prevention of Domestic and Family Violence Research Newsletter v.3 no.3 Jan 2005: 13-14, and Online (PDF 252K, whole issue)

Older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are vulnerable to abuse due to a range of socio-economic problems. This article outlines the role of the Elder Abuse Prevention Unit in empowering Aboriginal and Torres Stait Islander people by supporting a community based decision-making process.

Older people and mandatory reporting of abuse: rights vs protection.
Jackson, Les

Queensland Centre for Domestic and Family Violence Research Newsletter v.4 no.3 Mar 2006: 13-14 , and Online (whole issue PDF 291K)

Following reports of the rape and abuse of older women in aged care facilities, there have been calls for mandatory reporting of elder abuse. This article distinguishes between the abuse of older people within an aged care facility and those living at home and with no impairment to their decision making capacity, and suggests that older people with no diminished capacity ought to be consulted on the mandatory reporting question. It discusses the possibility that mandatory reporting would increase the incidence of hidden abuse, and argues that educating service providers in how to recognise and report family violence affecting older people would be a more effective use of resources.

Older people's assets: a contested site.
Tilse, Cheryl; Wilson, Jill; Setterlund, Deborah; Rosenman, Linda
Australasian Journal on Ageing v.24 no.2 Jun 2005 Supplement: S51-S56, tables

The management of the financial assets of older people is increasingly important in the current policy context. Competing interests from the state, the market and the family regarding the appropriate use of these assets suggest that nonprofessional managers are assisting older people in a complex environment. This paper, based on a national prevalence study and an in-depth study, explores the nature and extent of asset management on behalf of older people. It examines the role of legal provision for substitute decision-making in these processes and concludes that the current provision is insufficient to protect older people from financial abuse and support carers to manage assets well. This paper proposes that more broadly based interventions are required in a complex environment of competing interests. Such interventions include attitudinal change, improved financial literacy, information and support for older people and informal asset managers and improved monitoring and support for substitute decision makers. (Journal abstract)

Supporting the safety and dignity of senior Victorians: Victorian Government response to the report of the Elder Abuse Prevention Project.
Victoria. Department for Victorian Communities. Office of Senior Victorians

Melbourne, Vic: Office of Senior Victorians, 2006, 8p, Online (PDF 74 KB)

The Government supported all the Elder Abuse Prevention project's recommendations made in its report, presented in 2005 and titled 'Strengthening Victoria's Response to Elder Abuse'. The report recommended improved support networks and strengthened community legal services as ways to empower and protect vulnerable older Victorians. The government provided $5.9 million over four years in the 2006-07 Budget to deliver practical assistance to older people, including an education and community awareness program and setting up an older person's legal service.

Government policy and programs

Community Aged Care Packages in Australia 2004-2005: a statistical overview.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Canberra, ACT: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2006, 77p, statistical tables, figures, (Aged care statistics series no.23), and Online

This publication provides key statistics on the levels of service provision of the Australian Government funded Community Aged Care Packages (CACP) program and the Extended Aged Care at Home (EACH) program. The aim of this report is to highlight the characteristics of care recipients and patterns of service provision in both programs. Detailed statistics on the socio demographic characteristics of package recipients and the patterns of the recipients' admissions and separations are also provided. This is the seventh annual compilation of national administrative by product data prepared by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare on CACPs.

Comparison of the uptake of health assessment items for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and other Australians: implications for policy.
Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David; Anderson Ian P; Thomas, David

Australia and New Zealand Health Policy v.2 Sept 2005: 21p, Online

Health Assessment (HA) items were introduced in 1999 for Aboriginal people and all Australians aged over 75 years. In 2004 a new item was introduced for HAs among adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15-54 years. The new item has been applauded as a major policy innovation, however enthusiasm has been tempered with concern about potential barriers to its uptake. This study aims to determine whether there are disparities in uptake of HA items for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people compared to other Australians. The analysis was based on Health Insurance Commission data. Indigenous status was ascertained based on the item number used. Logistic regression was used to compare uptake of HA items for older people among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people compared to other Australians. Adjustments were made for dual eligibility. Uptake of the HA items for older people was compared to the uptake of the new item for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15-44 years. Results of analyses suggest a significant and persistent disparity in the uptake of items for older patients among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people compared to other Australians. A similar disparity appears to exist in the uptake of the new adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander HA item. Further engagement of primary care providers and the community around the uptake of the new HA items may be required to ensure that the anticipated health benefits eventuate. (Journal abstract, edited)

Future ageing: report on a draft report of the 40th Parliament: inquiry into long-term strategies to address the ageing of the Australian population over the next 40 years.
Australia. Parliament. House of Representatives. Standing Committee on Health and Ageing

Canberra, ACT: Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, 2005, 218p, figures, tables, and Online

The House of Representatives Standing Committee on Ageing of the 40th Parliament presents the draft report on its inquiry into the long term strategies to address the ageing of the Australian population over the next 40 years. The report includes the Committee inquiry process details and the evidence, developments and conclusions of the Committee. It considers the following: why population ageing is important; population ageing in other countries; promoting age friendly community environments; encouraging lifelong learning; supporting carers in the community; attitudes to ageing; discrimination; safety; elder abuse; planning for end of life issues; housing and transport; healthy ageing; workforce participation; financial security in later life; superannuation; the Aged Pension; private savings; financial literacy; funding for aged care and health services; community care services; depression and other mental health problems; respite care; palliative care; residential care; age friendly hospitals; general practitioners; and workforce shortages.

Generational justice in aged care policy in Australia and the United Kingdom.
Howe, Anna; Healy, Judith
Australasian Journal on Ageing v.24 no.2 Jun 2005 Supplement: S12-S18

This paper traces the emergence of the theme of generational justice in aged care policy in Australia and the United Kingdom. Debate about the balance to be struck between inter- and intragenerational funding in the two countries took somewhat different courses before and after the crossover in the political persuasion of national governments that occurred in 1996-1997, but both continue to grapple with the question as to whether housing assets of the elderly are a resource for private, intergenerational transfers, or a source of intragenerational funding for aged care. (Journal abstract)

Older people and aged care in rural, regional and remote Australia: national policy position.
Aged and Community Services Australia; National Rural Health Alliance

South Melbourne, Vic; Aged and Community Services Australia, 2004, 9p, Online (PDF 163 KB)

Following an earlier discussion paper which identified key challenges to the provision of both residential and community services in rural and remote areas, this policy paper outlines a range of actions and strategies for governments in three priority areas: planning and funding; workforce; and transport.

Plan for positive ageing 2006-2011: summary of consultations.
Tasmania. Department of Premier and Cabinet. Seniors Bureau

Hobart, Tas: Seniors Bureau, Department of Premier and Cabinet, 2005, 55p, Online (PDF 1.32 MB)

This document provides a summary of the information collated during the consultations on the discussion paper 'All ages, all Tasmanians together' released in May 2005. It outlines the community consultation process which targeted older people, and summarises the information collated from the consultations and responses to the question sheets in the discussion paper which asked people to suggest possible ways in which the needs of older Tasmanians could be better met by individuals, the community, including businesses, and by government.

Quality and equity in aged care.
Australia. Parliament. Senate. Community Affairs References Committee

Canberra, ACT: Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Australian Parliament, 2005, 206p, and Online

Terms of reference for the Committee were to inquire into and report on: the adequacy of current proposals in overcoming aged care workforce shortages and training; the performance and effectiveness of the Aged Care Standards and Accreditation Agency; the appropriateness of young people with disabilities being accommodated in residential aged care facilities and the extent to which residents with special needs, such as dementia, mental illness or specific conditions are met under current funding arrangements; the adequacy of Home and Community Care programs in meeting the current and projected needs of the elderly; and the effectiveness of current arrangements for the transition of the elderly from acute hospital settings to aged care settings or back to the community.

Some general issues from the aged care review.
Hogan, Warren

In: Australian Social Policy Conference 2005. Sydney, NSW: Social Policy Research Centre, 2005, 26p, Online only (MS Word)

The purpose of this contribution is an examination of some broad issues emerging from the recent review of aged care in Australia. Attention is directed to five elements. First, there is an appraisal about who bears the risks in the operation of the aged care arrangements in Australia at present and how might these risks be redistributed between the Australian Government, the suppliers of aged care services and the users of those services. The second theme is about the influences and interests bearing upon the development and application of policy measures. The third feature is about the way in which users of aged care services contribute to the funding of aged care facilities. This very complicated issue is about the contribution of residents to funding provision of accommodation given some minimum level of assets. The fourth is about the ways the interests of users should be represented and protected especially when those users are not capable of judging all their needs owing to illness; for example, associated with Alzheimer's / Dementias. Finally, there are issues with the tax exemptions granted to public benevolent institutions. (Author abstract)

Transitions between aged care services.
Karmel, Rosemary

Canberra, ACT: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2005, 74p, tables (Data linkage no.2), and Online

The Home and Community Care program (HACC), Community Aged Care Packages (CACPs) and residential aged care (RAC) services are the three main care service programs for older people in Australia. This report uses linked data to examine quarterly transitions between services. The report discusses use of residential respite care, increase in level of care, decrease in level of care, and data quality and link validation.

Use of and satisfaction with community aged care packages in the eastern suburbs of Sydney.
Thomas, Marlene; Woodhouse, Brian; Rees-Mackenzie, Jenny; Jeon, Yun-Hee
Australasian Journal on Ageing v.26 no.1 Mar 2007: 8-14, tables, figure

The pilot study aimed to examine the accessibility and the flexibility of the Community Aged Care Package (CACP) program and provide recommendations for further improvement. Data were collected using structured interviews with 80 CACP recipients, and mail surveys with nine service coordinators of CACP services. The results showed that CACPs were utilised more frequently and for longer periods by clients with English speaking backgrounds and those living alone. The average level of client satisfaction with CACP was high. Participants' concerns related to inflexibility, lack of communication between service providers and other health services, poor continuity and quality of care, inadequate funding, problems with recruitment, retention and support for staff. (Journal abstract, edited)

Veterans on community aged care packages: a comparative study.
Bowler, Evon; Peut, Ann

Canberra, ACT: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2006, 100p, tables, figures (Ages care series no.9), and Online

In this report the authors present a profile of Community Aged Care Package (CACP) recipients who were holders of a gold or white Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) Repatriation Health Card and examine the differences between DVA cardholders and other CACP care recipients. Veterans with a gold or white card have access to a wide range of medical, allied health and community care provided by DVA, in addition to assistance which is available to care recipients through their aged care packages. The CACP Program is only one element of the aged care system. This study is the first of a number of projects which will give an insight into the use of aged care and medical services by veterans and how these interact.

Health

A survey of publicly funded aged psychiatry services in Australia and New Zealand.
O'Connor, Daniel; Melding, Pamela
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry v.40 no.4 Apr 2006: 368-373, tables

This study aimed to map the size and distribution of publicly funded aged psychiatry, or pschyogeriatric, services in Australia and New Zealand in 2003. Directors or managers of services were asked to complete a brief questionnaire concerning their locality, services, staff profile and patient contacts. Services varied widely with respect to their numbers, size and community outreach. Victoria was the only Australian state to provide specialist, multidisciplinary aged psychiatry teams with community, acute inpatient and residential arms in all its major cities. New South Wales, the state with the largest aged population, performed relatively poorly on most indicators. New Zealand performed relatively well despite its small size and widely dispersed population. Publicly funded aged mental health services are effective and reach frail, old people with multiple disabilities who cannot access private psychiatrists and are often overlooked by services for younger adults. (Journal abstract, edited)

Are we prepared to meet the health challenges of ageing?
Howe, Anna L
In: What are the health challenges facing Australia? Nowra, NSW: National Foundation for Australian Women, 2005, p56-68, figures, Online (MS Word whole volume 822K)

Will Australia be ready and able to pay for population ageing? This paper looks at changes in ageing and health care during the period 1975 to 2005. It discusses recent trends in expenditure, the private health insurance rebate, options for aged care, reverse mortgages, and aged care social insurance schemes, which have been introduced in several other countries. The paper considers current debates and suggests options for the future.

Australia's health workforce.
Australia. Productivity Commission

Canberra, ACT: Productivity Commission, 2005, 397p, tables, figures, Online (PDF 1.52 MB)

This research report is the final report of a study commissioned by COAG to examines issues impacting on the health workforce including the supply of, and demand for, health workforce professionals, and to propose solutions to ensure the continued delivery of quality health care over the next 10 years. It reviews a range of workforce issues which include: factors affecting the future supply of, and demand for, health workers; the efficiency and effectiveness with which the available workforce is deployed; and what reforms to health workforce arrangements might be undertaken to improve access across the community to quality and safe health care. It considers the specific health workforce needs of rural, remote and outer metropolitan areas and issues of special needs in Indigenous health, mental health, aged care and disability. Other issues discusssed include medical technology, data and evaluation needs, education and training, accreditation and registration, payment mechanisms, workforce planning. Recommendations are made.

Dementia in Australia: national data analysis and development.
Peut, Ann; Hogan, Rebecca; Goss, John; Mann, Nick; Levings, Barbara

Canberra, Vic: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2007, 315p, tables, figures, Online (PDF 1.82 MB)

The report presents a profile of the Australian population with dementia, and discusses the characteristics and experiences of those caring for them. The report investigates current and projected prevalence and incidence of dementia, use of health and care services by those with dementia, and presents a new methodology for calculating expenditure on services associated with dementia. It outlines the data sources available, saying that the evidence base about dementia in Australia is weakened by the variable quality and consistency of available data, and describes the sorts of data items recommended to improve the collection of dementia data.

Diagnosing and treating depression in nursing home residents: challenges for GPs.
Koritsas, Stella; Davidson, Sandra; Clarke, David; O'Connor, Daniel
Australian Journal of Primary Health v.12 no.3 Dec 2006: 104-108

Depression is more common in elderly people residing in nursing homes than it is in people of the same age residing in the community. In Australia, general practitioners (GPs) are the primary providers of medical services to the elderly in nursing homes; however, they often under diagnose, and/or inadequately treat depression in this population. The difficulties experienced by GPs are confounded by the breakdown in the continuity of care that is evident when a patient is admitted into a nursing home, by inadequate communication between GPs and nursing home staff and systems within the nursing home that are not conducive to general practice. This paper discusses the challenges GPs face in diagnosing and treating depression in nursing home residents, and provides suggestions for strategies that may overcome these challenges. (Journal abstract)

Health insurance reform and older Australians.
Temple, Jeromey B
Australasian Journal on Ageing v.25 no.2 Jun 2006: 63-68, figures, tables

This study aims to document the changing proportions of older persons with health insurance in a period of policy change, and to examine why older persons do and do not purchase health insurance. This paper discusses these findings in relation to implications for current and future cohorts of the aged. Data from the Private Health Insurance Administrative Council and the Australian Bureau of Statistics are used to estimate cross sectional and cohort shifts in health insurance coverage among persons aged 55 years and over. Prior to recent reform, approximately 37 percent of persons aged 55 years and older have hospital health insurance compared with 45 percent in 2001, with considerable variation in coverage by age and sex. Health insurance coverage has increased among older Australians, albeit disproportionately. Affordability remains a key issue for older Australians and may become more problematic in future age cohorts. (Journal abstract, edited)

Healthy weight for adults and older Australians: a national action agenda to address overweight and obesity in adults and older Australians 2006-2010.
Australia. Department of Health and Ageing

Canberra, ACT: Department of Health and Ageing, 2006, 20p, ill., Online (PDF 534 KB)

The goals of this Agenda developed by the National Obesity Taskforce are to prevent weight gain at the population level; achieve better management of early risk; and improve management of weight. It presents a range of actions to address overweight and obesity for Australian adults, applied to the whole adult population as well as each of the priority population groups. These are older people, people living in rural and remote areas, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and people with established risk for weight-related chronic conditions.

Hospital admissions by socio-economic status: does the 'inverse care law' apply to older Australians?
Walker, Agnes; Pearse, Jim; Thurecht, Linc; Harding, Ann
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health v.30 no. 5 Oct 2006: 467-473, figures, tables

This cross sectional study investigated whether the inverse care law applies to New South Wales hospital admissions, especially to older people with high socioeconomic status (SES). Inequalities in public and private hospital admission rates were analysed by SES, defined in terms of age, sex and family income and size. Public hospital admission rates for people up to 60 years old were much higher for the most disadvantaged 20 per cent of the study population than for the least disadvantaged 20 per cent. This difference was reversed for people over 70 years old. For private hospitals this reversal prevailed for all age groups. The study concluded that while the inverse care law did apply to people over 60 years of age, it did not apply either to younger NSW hospital users or to public patients in public hospitals. (Journal abstract, edited)

Landscapes of healthy ageing.
Byles, Julie; Mishra, Gita; Brookes, Julie

In: 8th National Rural Health Conference - papers, 10-13 March 2005, Alice Springs, Northern Territory. Deakin, ACT: National Rural Health Alliance, 2005, 9p, figures, tables, Online (PDF 237 KB)

This paper explores changes in health for older women living in urban, rural and remote parts of Australia by comparing the prevalence of key health and health care indicators at three time points. Data is from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). The factors compared were health status, health behaviours and health service use. While the change in the health status of the women was relatively small, it accelerated in the second period of observation. The main difference was that urban women had generally higher levels of service use. ALSWH data showed that women who moved to urbanised areas had more symptoms of physical ill health, poorer mental health, higher perceived access to health care, but lower service use than women who had not moved. These data suggest that women who move from rural to urbanised areas are a potentially disadvantaged group of older women. (Author abstract, edited)

Multiple partners for mental health.
Patterson, Susan

In: 8th National Rural Health Conference - papers, 10-13 March 2005, Alice Springs, Northern Territory. Deakin, ACT: National Rural Health Alliance, 2005, 8p, tables, Online (PDF 171 KB)

Community based mental health services in the Eyre Region in South Australia began in 1994 at the Eyre Regional Health Service. This paper outlines barriers to health service delivery in rural and remote environments. It discusses the particular challenge for the new service, which needed to develop and implement a model of care that afforded equitable access to a comprehensive mental health service utilising existing resources. The paper discusses partnerships, recruiting, Aboriginal social and emotional well being, drug and alcohol services, adult survivors of child sexual abuse, mental health care for older people, child and youth mental health, general practitioners, and psychosocial rehabilitation.

Older patients' expectations of a 'senior-friendly' hospital.
Pettigrew, Simone
Australian Journal of Primary Health v.12 no.3 Dec 2006: 52-58, tables

With the ageing of populations around the world, hospitals seeking to maximise the satisfaction of their patients will need to ensure their services meet the expectations of the growing segment of older patients. Four focus groups were conducted in Perth, Western Australia, to explore those aspects of a hospital stay that are considered to be most important to older patients. The focus group participants nominated nursing care, meals, admission procedures, communication processes and physical facilities as those aspects of hospital service that are of particular importance to older patients. They noted that these issues are likely to be relevant to some degree to all patients but that, due to the needs of older patients, they become especially critical in later years. These findings have similarities with those generated by other studies but are more extensive than described elsewhere and thus provide more detailed guidance for hospital managers seeking to ensure their facilities are senior-friendly. (Journal abstract)

Older women in Australia: ageing in urban, rural and remote environments.
Byles, Julie; Powers, Jennifer; Chojenta, Catherine; Warner-Smith, Penny
Australasian Journal on Ageing v.25 no.3 Sept 2006: 151-157, tables

This study explored differences in quality of life and health service use for older women living in urban, rural and remote areas of Australia. Data on women aged 70 - 75 from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health from 1996, 1999 and 2002 were used. Women living in urban, rural and remote areas reported few differences on health and had similar changes in health related quality of life over time. The use of health services, need for informal care and provision of care to others increased over time. Urban participants used more general practitioners, specialist and allied health services, whereas non urban women used more community services and alternative health practitioners. Despite similar health problems, health service use differs significantly across urban, rural and remote areas of Australia. (Journal abstract, edited)

Housing

A home until stumps: how have policy changes over the past 20 years affected the elderly homeless?
Lipmann, Bryan

In: 4th National Homelessness Conference: papers. Dickson, ACT: Australian Federation of Homelessness Organisations, 2006, 11p, Online (PDF 54 KB)

The author traces the changing conditions for aged homeless people since the 1980s and leading to the establishment of organisations such as Wintringham, a service provider working specifically with older homeless people. There have been improvements for this group of the population now that their right to receive services via the aged care system is recognised. However, such improvements are overshadowed by federal and state government failure to provide capital funding to build aged care facilities for the elderly homeless.

Housing and support options for older people who are homeless.
Judd, Bruce: Kavanagh, Kay; Morris, Alan; Naidoo, Yuvisthi

Melbourne, Vic: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, 2005, 4p, figures (AHURI Research and Policy Bulletin no.61), and Online (122 KB)

The views of older homeless clients about their housing and support options are examined in this paper, along with results of a survey of staff from ACHA (Assistance with Care and Housing for the Aged) agencies. The paper discusses housing, the need for security, the desire for independent living, and supports for independent living.

Independent living units: a social housing option for older persons.
McNelis, Sean; Herbert, Tania

In: Building for diversity: National Housing Conference, Perth 2005: selected papers. Melbourne, Vic: National Housing Conference, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, 2005, 18p, table, figure, Online (PDF 274 KB)

Independent living units (ILUs) for older people with relatively low assets and low incomes are provided by organisations within the aged care sector. What is the role of independent living units as a social housing option for older persons? This paper looks at the results of a national survey of ILU organisations. It presents a national profile of ILU organisations and discusses the importance and future of ILUs.

Marginality amidst plenty: pathways into homelessness for older Australians.
Morris, Alan; Judd, Bruce; Kavanagh, Kay
Australian Journal of Social Issues v.40 no.2 Winter 2005: 241-251

In this paper, drawing on in-depth interviews, the authors illustrate that despite the significant overall increase in the wealth of older Australians over the last two decades, a sizeable proportion of older Australians (65 and over) are in a vulnerable accommodation situation and many face the possibility of finding themselves homeless. This is especially so for those older Australians who are dependent on government for their income and are living in private rented accommodation. The authors show that the changing nature of the housing market means that often informants were not able to find affordable, adequate and secure accommodation. The death of a spouse, rent increases and eviction are common precipitators of a slide into a situation of imminent homelessness. The restructuring of the welfare state and the virtual freeze on the building of social housing means that older private renters who face eviction often have nowhere to turn. Besides not being able to rely on the market or government, many have minimal or no family and social networks. (Journal abstract)

Retrofitting, a response to lack of diversity: an analysis of community provider data.
Bridge, Catherine; Gopalan, Praveen

In: Building for diversity: National Housing Conference, Perth 2005: selected papers. Melbourne, Vic: National Housing Conference, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, 2005, 18p, figures, tables, Online (PDF 163 KB)

The Home and Community Care (HACC) Program funds housing assistance to make homes suitable for frail older people and people with disabilities. This study analyses HACC client data for the 2001 - 2002 reporting period and ABS data that relate to home modification, client age and client area of residence. Recipients of HACC Program funded home modification services varied significantly between states and territories, client age groups and client's Indigenous status. This paper looks at explanations for these variations, including regional differences in policy and funding structures that affect HACC housing assistance availability. It includes feedback from selected New South Wales state departments concerning the relevance of these findings to policy.

Social housing rental policy in Australia and overseas.
McNelis, Sean; Burke, Terry

Melbourne, Vic: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, 2006, 4p (AHURI research and policy bulletin no.75), and Online (PDF 120 KB)

Australia's public housing, community housing, affordable housing, Indigenous housing and aged persons' housing rental systems are analysed and compared with those in New Zealand, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden and the Netherlands. The paper discusses Australia's rental policies, perceived strengths and weaknesses of the Australian rental systems, how the Australian system of financing social housing compares internationally, and options for modelling improved financial viability and reducing complexity.

The costs and benefits of using private housing as the 'home base' for care for older people: a systematic literature review.
Bridge, Catherine; Phibbs, Peter; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark; Bartlett, Helen

Melbourne, Vic: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, 2006, 69p, figures, tables (AHURI positioning paper), Online (PDF 597 KB)

Little Australian research has been done in the area of cost benefit studies into the home care of older people. A significant limitation of previous research is that it has focused on the cost or the accommodation without investigating the relationship between the two. This literature review provides the background for a project that will investigate policy and program delivery issues associated with achieving appropriate health care and housing interventions for older adults.

21st century housing careers and Australia's housing future: literature review.
Beer, Andrew; Faulkner, Debbie; Gabriel, Michelle

Melbourne, Vic: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, 2006, 82p, tables, figures, Online (PDF 356 KB)

This paper reviews the evidence base around changing housing careers and seeks to elucidate how shifts in household structure, the labour market, fertility patterns, attitudes to homeownership and government assistance, will influence the demand for government interventions in housing markets over the next 10, 20 and 30 years. It places emphasis on the risk of adverse events and the changing meaning of home to individuals, highlighting the fact that housing circumstances can change even if the resident does not move tenure or dwelling - relevant for example to older people and those with identifiable needs such as persons with a disability and migrants. Indigenous Australians have distinctive housing careers that reflect cultural factors, the youthfulness of the population and their considerable social and economic disadvantage. The review considers the differing housing careers of identifiable generations over the last fifty years and focusses on differing housing consumption patterns at life stage - early adulthood, middle age and in the later years of life. A profound revolution in housing careers in later life is predicted, as housing careers of older people represent the most significant area of change in 21st Century housing careers when compared with the 20th Century. The paper concludes that changes in 21st Century housing careers have profound implications for housing policy and the delivery of housing assistance. This includes the: probable increase in demand for housing assistance amongst older Australians; need to support people as they age in place; need to develop mechanisms to deal with the housing consequence of divorce and separation; lengthened transition of adulthood with implications for both those undertaking study and/or those who cannot call upon parental support; impacts of young people delaying entry into homeownership. The paper concludes with a discussion of research questions to focus on as the research project progresses.

Retirement living standards

Baby-boomer affluence: myth or reality?
Birrell, Bob; Healy, Ernest
Just Policy no.37 Sept 2005: 33-40, tables

How accurate is the stereotype that male baby boomers enjoy a favoured material situation? This article claims that the stereotypes are misplaced, and that many of these men are on low incomes or welfare benefits, in part because of insecure employment options. It examines reasons for the growth in precarious employment in Australia, and its effects on the extent and nature of social vulnerability. It discusses the policy implications of the inability of a sizable minority of older Australians to self fund their retirement.

Home equity, retirement incomes and family relationships.
Dolan, Alex; McLean, Peter; Roland, David

In: Families Matter: 9th Australian Institute of Family Studies Conference, Melbourne, February 2005 - proceedings. Melbourne, Vic: Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2005, 15p, tables, Online only

To what extent will senior Australians seek to enhance their retirement living standards through accessing the capital in their homes and, if so, what impact might that have on family relationships? Noting that Australians hold a sizable proportion of their wealth in the family home, ways in which retirees can access this source of wealth to generate additional retirement income beyond that which can be provided by their savings and age pension are discussed in this paper. The paper is based on an examination of recently available data on household wealth from the Wealth Module in Wave 2 of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics Australia (HILDA) Survey. The policy implications of this practice becoming more widespread - particularly those implications associated with a changed pattern of inter-generational wealth transfer - are highlighted.

Live longer, work longer.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2006, 145p, tables, figures (Ageing and Employment Policies)

Population ageing is one of the most important challenges facing OECD countries. Over the next 50 years, all OECD countries will experience a steep increase in the share of elderly persons in the population and a large decline in the share of the population of prime working age. As a result in most countries, the number of workers retiring each year will increase sharply and eventually exceed the number of new labour market entrants. Policy reforms are needed to reverse the trend towards ever earlier retirement. What can government do to bring about changes? How can workers, employers and government work together to guide an ageing society to a prosperous future? This report seeks to answer these questions, and argues for: strong financial incentives for individuals to continue working; strong incentives for employers to both hire and retain older workers; appropriate help and encouragement to improve the employability of older workers; and a shift in attitudes to continue working at an older age on the part of both employers and older workers themselves.

Living, caring, working: policy responses to an ageing population and shrinking workforce.
Johnson, Emily

In: From Welfare to Social Investment: Reimagining Social Policy for the Life Course: conference presentations. Parkville, Vic: Centre for Public Policy, University of Melbourne, 2007, 6p, Online (PDF 80 KB)

Australia's ageing population and the trend towards community care rather than residential or institutional care for older people indicates that increasing numbers of people will become unpaid carers of family members, friends and neighbours. Most of these carers are likely to be women. Lack of alternative care arrangements, lack of workplace flexibility, tax disincentives and the high cost of paid care mean that many carers leave jobs to meet their care responsibilities. Drawing on international and local best practice, this paper puts forward policy responses that government and business could implement to reduce the impact, socially and economically, of unpaid care.

Tomorrow's consumers.
Harding, Ann; Payne, Alicia; Vu, Quoc Ngu

Parramatta, NSW: AMP, 2006, 21p, figures, tables (AMP.NATSEM income and wealth report no.15), Online (PDF 390 KB)

How will Australians spend their money in the year 2020? This report considers the effect of the increase in older households on changes in consumer markets. Based on population ageing estimates, it predicts that potential growth areas could include aged care, medical and therapeutic appliances, leisure and gambling; and a decline in industries that produce consumables such as snack foods, baby foods and toys, and in early childhood care and education providers. The report discusses the population structure in 2020, the baby bust, changing leisure spending, and escalating healthcare costs.

Will older workers change their retirement plans in line with government thinking? A review of recent literature on retirement intentions.
Jackson, Natalie; Walter, Maggie; Felmingham, Bruce; Spinaze, Anna
Australian Bulletin of Labour v.32 no.4 2006: 315-344, figures

This paper reviews recent retirement and retirement intention literature, with a view to assessing the acceptability of growing calls for later retirement and the conditions that may lead to a change in present plans. The review finds broad consensus with regard to the key factors that enter the retirement decision, significant among which are that financial considerations are not always prioritised, and that high rates of involuntary retirement may hold the key to understanding the recent trend to early retirement. Across a broad range of studies, many external factors serve to disrupt retirement intentions, which exceed actual retirement by 1 - 3 years and desired retirement age by double that margin. The findings indicate an elasticity of around 6 years wherein actual retirement could now move up or down depending on how well revisions to retirement, and labour market policy, accord with the needs and interests of older workers. They also illustrate a related need for more information on the retirement intentions and circumstances of women, whose increasing labour force participation at older ages appears to account for the recent small increase in Australia's average retirement age. (Journal abstract)

Work in later life: opportunity or threat?
Davey, Judith; Davies, Mary

Social Policy Journal of New Zealand no.27 Mar 2006: 20-37, figures, and Online

In many countries population ageing has led to calls for a re examination of retirement and labour force participation by older people. This paper asks whether work in later life constitutes a threat or an opportunity - for the workers themselves, for their employers and for society as a whole. Comparisons are made between New Zealand and the United Kingdom, in terms of the policy environment and trends of labour force participation for men and women aged 50 and over. Individual perspectives, the point of view of employers and factors at the macro level are examined. Through examining the factors that influence decisions about work in later life, the paper suggests measures that can be taken by employers and by governments to turn potential threats into opportunities. (Journal abstract)

Social contexts of ageing

A case for examining the social context of frailty in later life.
Barrett, Patrick
Australasian Journal on Ageing v.25 no.3 Sept 2006: 114-118

This paper makes a case for examining late life frailty as a dynamic social phenomenon. There is increasing interest in the issue of late life frailty from biomedical researchers, but less so from researchers using the perspectives and methods of social gerontology given a concern that to focus on aspects of functional decline tacitly endorses negative views of ageing. This paper begins by introducing an example of the way frailty in older people is referred to in regional health policy initiatives in New Zealand, before discussing issues around the definition of frailty and its significance. It concludes by noting that while the term frailty is problematic, social gerontology has a contribution to make in understanding processes of loss of capacity in later life and the social and institutional context within which that occurs, and thus has a contribution to make in policy planning and service delivery. (Journal abstract)

A reality check on virtual communications in aged care: pragmatics or power?
King, Christopher; Workman, Barbara

In: Exploring the meaning of ageing through research, policy and practice: paper presented to the 38th Annual Conference of the Australian Association of Gerontology. Sydney, NSW: Australian Association of Gerontology, 2005, p79-87, table, Online only (whole volume PDF 1490K)

The potential of information and communications technologies (ICT) to deliver low cost health care is of increasing interest to the aged care industry. But can or should e-health replace face to face consultations? This paper reports research into the use of videoconferencing to deliver specialist pain management consultations to older nursing home residents. The research examined residents' satisfaction with virtual consultations, and found that residents adapted readily and expressed preference for virtual consultations. The paper discusses practical and theoretical implications of the use of ICT systems in aged care, including an active role for older people in policy planning for aged care services.

Ageing and cultural diversity in Queensland: working together to make a difference: report of a scoping project.
Bartlett, Helen; Rao, D Visala; Warburton, Jeni

Brisbane, Qld: Australasian Centre on Ageing, University of Queensland, 2006, 111p, tables, figures, Online (PDF 455 KB)

This report of a scoping project funded by the Queensland Government encompasses the breadth of needs and issues facing the 31,000 (2001) culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) older people living in Queensland. The scoping project was started with a literature review and consultations with stakeholders, and finished with a symposium - discussion group findings are outlined by themes. The report identifies four key categories of issues (economic self-sufficiency, social well being, health, aged care services) as playing a critical role in determining the well being of older people of CALD background, with the interplay of these issues on each other creating additional complexities. The issues faced become exacerbated by cultural and language barriers, migration circumstances, age at time of migration and gender, geographical location along with age-friendly housing, transport and infrastructure facilities. Best practice models and innovative strategies are identified, and recommendations made for further action and research to improve access to and quality of services.

Australian intrastate migration: the story of age pensioners.
Marshall, Nancy; Murphy, Peter A; Burnley, Ian H; Hugo, Graeme J

Australian Social Policy 2005: 65-86, figures, tables, and Online

What are the motivations and welfare outcomes of older people who relocate from cities to non metropolitan areas and vice versa? This article focuses on the experiences of Age Pensioners who, in recent years, moved from Sydney and Adelaide to non metropolitan areas of New South Wales and South Australia, and of those who moved in the opposite direction. It discusses policy issues and welfare implications.

Departing the margins: social class and later life in a second modernity.
Higgs, Paul; Gilleard, Chris
Journal of Sociology v.42 no.3 Sept 2006: 219-241

The contemporary experience of retirement in the most prosperous nations reorganises the relationship of social class to old age. Later life can now be seen in terms of lifestyle and identity rather than being primarily a reflection of previous occupations. From being a residual category of social policy, the widespread introduction of retirement pensions not only 'decommodified' later life but was successful in taking older people out of a life cycle determined poverty. This decommodification had the effect of removing later life from the social relations of social class. During the 'golden age' of welfare, old age became dependent on class but was effectively outside it. 'Old people' were simply pensioners dependent on conditions set up during their working lives. Using Beck's schema of transition from first modernity into second modernity, retirement, particularly in Australia, the UK and the USA, has become recommodified as a potential consumer lifestyle sustained by pension fund capitalism and by the individualisation of pension risk. Contemporary later life thus complicates the nature of social class as retirees become constitutive rather than residues of the class system. (Journal abstract)

Language needs and service provision for older persons from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in south-east Melbourne residential care facilities.
Runic, Susannah J; O'Connor, Daniel W; Redman, Jennifer R
Australasian Journal on Ageing v.24 no.3 Sept 2005: 157-161, tables

This study aimed to provide up to date figures on the language needs of older persons from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in local residential care facilities and to investigate the extent to which these needs are catered for by the provision of language relevant services. A postal questionnaire was sent to 189 registered aged care facilities in the south east region of Melbourne. The questionnaire focused on three main issues: the number of residents who preferred or needed to speak non English languages; the staff available to speak to residents in non English languages; and the language specific services provided at their facility. The findings emphasise the need for widespread use of language appropriate services and, due to the growing ageing migrant population, have important policy implications. (Journal abstract, edited)

Living in partnership: an approach to providing services for people living with dementia from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.
Wall, Sharon; Santalucia, Yvonne; Kyriazopoulos, Helena

In: Exploring the meaning of ageing through research, policy and practice: papers submitted for peer review and presented to the 38th Annual Conference of the Australian Association of Gerontology. Sydney, NSW: Australian Association of Gerontology, 2005, p135-141, figure, Online only (whole volume PDF 1490K)

The Living in Partnerships (LIP) model has been developed for providing services to dementia sufferers from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. This paper points out that whereas people living with dementia are often defined primarily by their illness, in fact their cultural identity becomes increasingly important to them as they come to live more in their pasts. The LIP model facilitates partnerships between ethnic communities and other services and partnerships, with the objective of allowing the users of services a voice that can help shape services to become increasingly relevant, better utilised and more appropriate for meeting the needs of the wider community.

Older people.
Setterlund, Deborah; Wilson, Jill; Tilse, Cheryl
In: Chui, Wing Hong and Wilson, Jill eds. Social work and human services best practice. Annandale, NSW: Federation Press, 2006, p150-171

A framework for social work practice with older people is presented, which enables practitioners and older people to achieve mutually agreed upon ethical outcomes. The chapter discusses: social contexts of ageing, including demographic change, income, health, family networks and policy responses; and key issues in ageing, including dementia, care giving, assisted and substitute decision making, financial elder abuse and participation in community life. It explores the practice context in the field of ageing, looking at assessment processes and interventions, with the use of a case example.

Social capital: a potential tool for analysis of the relationship between ageing individuals and their social environment.
Barr, F M; Russell, C

In: Exploring the meaning of ageing through practice, policy and research: Australian Association of Gerontology 38th National Conference, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, November 2005. Belconnen, ACT: Australian Association of Gerontology, 2005, p11-22, Online only (whole volume PDF 1372K)

Social capital research in Australia has, in general, not focused on government policy for older Australians. This paper reviews Australian and overseas research to identify the elements of social capital that may have relevance to policy development for an ageing population. It gives examples of how the concept of social capital has been applied in the policy setting, and explores some of the positive and negative effects this has had on older people. It concludes that further research is required to understand the nature of social capital as it relates to older people.

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